Glorious 1st of June
1st June 1794

Glorious 1st of June, 1st June 1794

The Glorious First of June

Lord Howe, who had been first Lord of the Admiralty for a short time, but had resigned when the Annual Estimates ere cut down in 1790, another difficulty having arisen with Spain, was appointed to the command of the Channel Fleet, and hoisted the Union Jack on the Queen Charlotte. The dispute with Spain, however, was adjusted, but in 1793, when 68 years of age, on the outbreak of war with France, he was reappointed to the command of the channel Fleet.

Ship for ship the French fleet was more than a match for the English fleet both in tonnage and in weight of metal. The French people had the most of unbounded confidence in their Armada. “Never before,” wrote the Moniteur before the fleet set sail, “did there exist in Brest a fleet so formidable and well disposed as that now lying there.

Howe had 26 sail of the line and seven frigates; the French Admiral, Villaret-Joyeuse, who shared his authority with Saint Andre, a Deputy from the Convention, had the same number of ships of the line and five frigates. The French Admiral flew his flag on the Montagne, which also carried the Representative of the convention.

A General Chase

When the French fleet, which was to windward, have come within nine miles of the British, it hauled to the wind on the larboard tack and hove to. Some manoeuvring followed, but at nine o’clock (May 28th) it became evident that the enemy was declining the engagement, so Howe gave the signal for a general chase, the enemy to be engaged as the ships came up with him. The first shot in this long-drawn-out engagement was discharged at half-past-two, when the Russell, the foremost British ship, fired at the hindmost vessel of the French fleet. At six o’clock the Bellerophon, of 74 guns, reached the lee beam of the Revolutionnaire, carrying 120, pluckily attacked her, and stuck to her for over an hour, until she was disabled and had to sheer off. Other ships, singly or in couples, then tried their hands upon the great French ship, and in the end she was reduced to such a defenceless condition that to the last broadside of the Audacious she could only return three shots. Her loss in men was nearly 4--; and it was only with great difficulty that she reached Rochefort in tow of the Audacieux. Her assailants, however, did not come off scathe less, and the Audacious had difficulty in making her way to Plymouth.

The Disabled Ships

The next day (May 29th) Howe’s flagship, bearing the brunt of the fire of the French line, passed through it between the fifth and sixth vessels in the rear, but as she was followed only by the Bellerophon and the and the Leviathan, no advantage could be taken of this change of position. The rest of the English fleet had passed along the enemy’s line, and tackling astern of it were too far distant when they had regained the Charlotte’s wake to give her support. Three of the French ships, which had been disabled, were rescued by the skill of the French Admiral, who bore up with his whole fleet to their support, though in doing so he had to give up the weather-gage to his enemy. “The distant and dispersed state of the British fleet,” according to Howe, prevented any adequate steps being taken to circumvent the rescue of the three disabled ships. The Leviathon had her foremast crippled, and it was in danger of falling, and Howe stood to her help. In his “Journal” Lord Hugh Seymour, her captain, made a handsome acknowledgment of the timely succour.

Nothing decisive either on this or on the two succeeding days owing to fog; but on the morning of June 1st soon after seven o’clock, Howe signalled that he intended to attack the enemy’s centre, and that he should break through the enemy’s lines and engage to leeward; an hour later he ordered each of his ships to steer for the ship opposed to her in the enemy’s line.

OUR RECOMMENDATION FOR THIS BATTLE

HMS Defence at the Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Nicholas Pocock.

DHM143. HMS Defence at the Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Nicholas Pocock.

One of the most realistic pictures of a sea battle ever painted, the British ship, the Defence, totally dismasted but refusing to surrender, she is being attacked by a French two-decker on the left and L Achille on the right.

Open edition print.

Image size 30 inches x 18 inches (76cm x 46cm)

Price : £50.00

Glorious 1st of June Art Prints

One of the most realistic pictures of a sea battle ever painted, the British ship, the Defence, totally dismasted but refusing to surrender, she is being attacked by a French two-decker on the left and L Achille on the right. HMS Defence at the Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Nicholas Pocock.Click For DetailsDHM0143
 In January 1793 the 1st Battalion of the 29th Foot leaves Windsor for Hilsea to board Royal Navy fighting ships as there is a shortage of marines. Their new roll is to counter enemy musket fire from the upper decks, to lead boarding parties and to maintain discipline of the crew. They are specially equipped with a new working rig but still retain their full dress red coats and powdered hair (curled locks above the ear are removed) for combat. The regiment joins The British Channel Fleet under Admiral Earl Howe, and detachments are allocated to the following ships of the line; H.M.S. Glory, Thunderer, Alfred, Pegasus and Ramilles. 78 soldiers under the command of Cpt. Alexander Saunders are also placed aboard Captain Harveys 74 gun H.M.S. Brunswick.  Howes ships are sent to intercept a fleet, of similar size that has put out from Brest to escort a large convoy of food from America, destined for Revolutionary France. The two fleets make contact but fog prevents an engagement until 1 Oarn on the first day of June 1794. Now, in bright sunshine, the order is given to attack! Brunswick is directly astern of Howes flag ship as the French line is broken. She quickly engages Le Vengeur with which she becomes dangerously entangled. Broadsides are exchanged at point blank range! Sails are shot to ribbons, masts and rigging fall. Grenades, carronades and musketry find their targets and casualties mount. Nevertheless, the ships band, joined by a negro regimental drummer on the quarter deck, keep up moral by playing the new and popular air Hearts Of Oak. The two ships drift helplessly as another French man-of-war, Achille, comes in for the kill but the British gunners deliver such a devastating broadside into this new assailant that she is completely demasted and strikes her colours! In the firefight the figure head, an effigy of the Duke of Brunswick, has its carved wooden hat blown clean away. So, Captain Harvey calmly replaces the loss with his own cocked hat! The captain himself receives a blow to the hand and is subsequently mortally wounded with a section of chain-shot. Cpt. Saunders is killed by a snipers bullet and Lt. Harcourt Vernon (wearing short, non regulation boots to facilitate amputation) is soon wounded as well. The decks are cleared of downed masts and rigging, the dead also go over the side. cl At about one oclock the two interlocked ships are separated by a swell and Harveys brothers ship Ramilles cornes to the Brunsivicks assistance. The crippled Vengeur cannot compete with the skill of English gunnery and the ship is raked from end to end by galling fire. Cheers ring out as she surrenders and hoists the Union Jack. The rest of the French fleet breaks off the engagement. Six of their ships are out of action and Le Vengeur is so very badly holed that she eventually sinks (many of her crew refusing to abandon her. Singing the Marseillaise they re-hoist her battle flag as they slip to their watery grave)  This British fleet returns in triumph to Spithead. However, the scene on the Brunswicks splintered poop deck is one of utter devastation. The regiment has 13 officers and men killed, another 18 are wounded and nearly quarter of the ships company is lost.  This hard won victory is commemorated by the regiment with Naval Crown (awarded to the regiment in 1909, an honour shared only by the Queens Regiment) and by the adoption of the tune played throughout the height of battle, Hearts of Oak.  Hearts of Oak by Mark Churms.Click For DetailsDHM0369
DHM595.  Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Louthemburg. Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Louthembourg.Click For DetailsDHM0595

Glorious 1st of June

The Glorious First of June

Lord Howe, who had been first Lord of the Admiralty for a short time, but had resigned when the Annual Estimates ere cut down in 1790, another difficulty having arisen with Spain, was appointed to the command of the Channel Fleet, and hoisted the Union Jack on the Queen Charlotte. The dispute with Spain, however, was adjusted, but in 1793, when 68 years of age, on the outbreak of war with France, he was reappointed to the command of the channel Fleet.

Ship for ship the French fleet was more than a match for the English fleet both in tonnage and in weight of metal. The French people had the most of unbounded confidence in their Armada. “Never before,” wrote the Moniteur before the fleet set sail, “did there exist in Brest a fleet so formidable and well disposed as that now lying there.

Howe had 26 sail of the line and seven frigates; the French Admiral, Villaret-Joyeuse, who shared his authority with Saint Andre, a Deputy from the Convention, had the same number of ships of the line and five frigates. The French Admiral flew his flag on the Montagne, which also carried the Representative of the convention.

A General Chase

When the French fleet, which was to windward, have come within nine miles of the British, it hauled to the wind on the larboard tack and hove to. Some manoeuvring followed, but at nine o’clock (May 28th) it became evident that the enemy was declining the engagement, so Howe gave the signal for a general chase, the enemy to be engaged as the ships came up with him. The first shot in this long-drawn-out engagement was discharged at half-past-two, when the Russell, the foremost British ship, fired at the hindmost vessel of the French fleet. At six o’clock the Bellerophon, of 74 guns, reached the lee beam of the Revolutionnaire, carrying 120, pluckily attacked her, and stuck to her for over an hour, until she was disabled and had to sheer off. Other ships, singly or in couples, then tried their hands upon the great French ship, and in the end she was reduced to such a defenceless condition that to the last broadside of the Audacious she could only return three shots. Her loss in men was nearly 4--; and it was only with great difficulty that she reached Rochefort in tow of the Audacieux. Her assailants, however, did not come off scathe less, and the Audacious had difficulty in making her way to Plymouth.

The Disabled Ships

The next day (May 29th) Howe’s flagship, bearing the brunt of the fire of the French line, passed through it between the fifth and sixth vessels in the rear, but as she was followed only by the Bellerophon and the and the Leviathan, no advantage could be taken of this change of position. The rest of the English fleet had passed along the enemy’s line, and tackling astern of it were too far distant when they had regained the Charlotte’s wake to give her support. Three of the French ships, which had been disabled, were rescued by the skill of the French Admiral, who bore up with his whole fleet to their support, though in doing so he had to give up the weather-gage to his enemy. “The distant and dispersed state of the British fleet,” according to Howe, prevented any adequate steps being taken to circumvent the rescue of the three disabled ships. The Leviathon had her foremast crippled, and it was in danger of falling, and Howe stood to her help. In his “Journal” Lord Hugh Seymour, her captain, made a handsome acknowledgment of the timely succour.

Nothing decisive either on this or on the two succeeding days owing to fog; but on the morning of June 1st soon after seven o’clock, Howe signalled that he intended to attack the enemy’s centre, and that he should break through the enemy’s lines and engage to leeward; an hour later he ordered each of his ships to steer for the ship opposed to her in the enemy’s line.

Howe’s Compliment to Bowen

When breaking through the French line the Queen Charlotte passed so close under the Montagne’s stern that the French ensign brushed her lower rigging. Just as she was closing with the Montagne, Howe, whom was he conning her, called out to Bowen to starboard the helm. “But we shall be on board the Jacobin!” Was Bowmen’s reply for the Jacobin, the French ship next to the Montagne, was stretching ahead towards the position abreast of the flagship, which the Queen Charlotte was making for. “What is that to you, sir?” The Admiral rejoined. “D----n my eyes!” Said Bowen in an undertone; “I don’t care if you don’t! I’ll go near enough to singe some of our whiskers.” Howe overheard the remark, and, cool as he always was in the greatest emergency, said, turning to his captain, “That’s a fine fellow, Curtis!” Bowen star boarded the helm, and the Queen Charlotte passed the Jacobin on the weather quarter, but so closely that her jib boom grazed the mizzen shrouds of the French ship. As the latter bore up she received the Queen Charlottes starboard broadside in her port quarter, which she returned by shooting away the Charlottes foretopmast. This made it impossible for Howe to luff alongside the Montagne, as he had intended to do, but he maintained a cannonade upon her starboard quarter, which struck down nearly 300 of her men. This terrible fire the French Admirable endured for a time without firing a shot, owing, it has been suggested, to his starboard broadside guns not having been cleared for action, since he had not anticipated that the enemy would break his line and attack him to leeward. At 10 a.m. with her stern and quarter stove in and a number of her guns dismounted, the Montagne left the line of battle. The Jacobin and others also hauled off, and Howe gave the signal “General chase.” When the Montagne and the Jacobin had reached their own van the flagship wore, and, followed by 11 others, made for the Queen, which was lying disabled, no great way from the charlotte. Seeing her peril, Howe with several of his ships stood towards their disabled consort, whereat the Frenchmen went to help five crippled ships to westward, succeeded in saving them.

A Dramatic Struggle

There was a dramatic struggle between the Duke of Brunswick and the Vengeur du Peuple. The Achille had foiled the Brunswick’s attempt to break through the French line, so she steered for the Venguer, and colliding with the Brunswick anchors, caught in the Vengeur’s rigging, and the two ships jammed together, with their sides grating up and down as the waves rose and fell, fought, locked yard-arm to yard-arm. The English crews got the better of the struggle, and, beat down the fire of the Vengeur below but the French vessel’s chain-shot and musketry killed the Brunswick’s captain and nearly all those who were on her upper deck. The Frenchmen then intended to carry the Brunswick by boarding, assisted by the Achille, which was close to at hand. Her boarding parties crowded on the gangways and rigging, stood ready with cutlass and pistol for the moment when the ships would touch. Her main and mizzenmasts had already gone over the side, and she was moving under her foresails only when the Brunswick’s guns crews, running across to her side, poured in so destructive a fire that the men in the rigging and gangways were knocked down’ at the same time her foremast fell, and she later became a prize, for three British vessels were now approaching to help the Duke of Brunswick. Her guns crews and fired with extreme elevation and extreme depression, alternately, into the side of the Vengeur, knocking great holes into her upper decks, and riddling her on the water line.

After remaining locked together for a long time, the anchors of the Brunswick carrying the Vengeur’s rigging, the ships forged clear. The Brunswick’s mizzenmast went over the side, but she gave the Vengeur some parting shots, which, breaking her rudder, knocked more, holes into her stern. The crew had fought nobly, for onboard the Brunswick 160 out of 600 men were down, and 23 out of 74 guns had been dismounted.

The captain of H.M.S. Ramillies now brought up his ship to assist his brother, who commanded the Brunswick, and after punishing the Vengeur still further, captured the Achille, then floating a sheer hulk on the water.

The Vengeur, with all her masts overboard, pierced by army shots, was slowly sinking, in spite of all the remaining effective crew being kept at the pumps and bailing ship. She had hung out signals of distress for some time, but during the heat of action they had not been noticed, till at 6 p.m. two British ships sent off their boats, which moved about 200 men, but the remainder, including all the badly wounded, sank in the ship.

Only a few of the British ships obeyed Howe’s order and followed his lead through the enemy’s line; the rest hauled up to windward and opened fire, some at short, others at long range. By half past eleven, when the firing on both sides had slackened, the British had eleven, the French twelve dismasted vessel, which we captured by 2.30 p.m. and Admiral Villaret Joyeuse steered for the harbour of Brest.

The British casualties were 222 killed and 700 wounded, and the total number for beginning to end of the operations was 1,148. The French loss was vastly greater. On the six captured ships along the killed and wounded numbered 1,270. Upwards of 2,000 were taken prisoners; the French total loss was 7,000 men.

Lord Howe, who rendered invaluable services to the nation in suppressing the Mutiny at Spithead in 1797, died August 5th, 1799. He was buried in the family vault in Nottinghamshire. The monument in the south transept of St. Paul’s Cathedral commemorates “his great and meritorious services, and in particular the brilliant victory of the 1st of June.”

Source : British Battles on Land and Sea

 

AVIATION PRINTS

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 Wing Commander J R Baldwin is depicted flying Typhoon MN934 whilst commanding 146 Wing, 84 Group operating from Needs Oar Point in 1944, en route to a bombing raid on 20th June with other Typhoons of 257 Sqn in which both ends of a railway tunnel full of German supplies were successfully sealed.

Typhoons Over Normandy by Ivan Berryman.
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 With a final 47 victories to his credit, Robert Alexander Little was one of the highest-scoring British aces of World War 1, beginning his career with the famous No 8 (Naval) Squadron in 1916, flying Sopwith Pup N5182, as shown here. On 21st April 1917, he was attacked and shot down by six aircraft of Jasta Boelke, Little being thrown from the cockpit of his Sopwith Camel on impact with the ground. As the German aircraft swooped in to rake the wreckage with machine gun fire, Little pulled his Webley from its holster and began returning fire before being assisted by British infantry with their Lewis guns. Such was the character of this great pilot who finally met his death whilst attacking Gotha bombers on the night of 27th May 1918.

Captain Robert Little by Ivan Berryman. (GS)
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 Focke-Wulf FW.190A-5/U8 of 1 Gruppe, Schnellkampfgeschwader 10 in 1943. All national markings were painted out, except for the call sign C on the fuselage and repeated, crudely sprayed, on the engine cowling.

Focke-Wulf Fw190A-5/U8 by Ivan Berryman.
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A Royal Air Force Wessex HC2 Helicopter picks up troops somewhere in Northern Ireland.

Pup Northern Ireland by John Wynne Hopkins (P)
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 Britain's highest scoring Typhoon ace, Wing Commander J R Baldwin sweeps above Utah Beach on a sortie in support of the Allied forces' drive into mainland Europe following D-Day in June 1944.  He is shown flying one of his personal aircraft, Typhoon 1b MN935 'JBII'.

Wing Commander J R Baldwin by Ivan Berryman.
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Shortly after 2.00pm on Friday 24th October 2003, supersonic commercial aviation was brought to a close as three British Airways Concordes touched down within minutes of each other at Londons Heathrow Airport for the last time.  Here, BA Captain Mike Bannister bring G-BOAG  home for the final touchdown.

Concorde - The Final Touchdown by Ivan Berryman.
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 The Short Stirling was the RAFs first four-engined bomber to enter service and it served throughout WWII in many roles including bomber, minelayer, troop carrier and glider-tug. The lack of power produced by its engines severely limited the loads carried by Stirlings. On long-range trips such as Italy, even with a greatly reduced bomb load the aircraft could barely clear the Alps. Despite very large losses due to its operational limitations, those that flew this big, agile aircraft, came to respect and look upon it with it with affection.

The Night Shift by Philip West. (Y)
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 The Sopwith Dolphin was a radical departure from previous Sopwith design philosophies, embodying a reverse-stagger on the wings, a water-cooled Hispano-Suiza engine and an unusual, but highly popular positioning of the cockpit which gave the pilot unprecedented views. One exponent of this purposeful looking machine was Canadian Major A D Carter who claimed many of his 31 victories flying the Dolphin. He is shown here sending an Albatross to the ground on 8th May 1918 whilst flying C4017. Carter was himself shot down soon after became a prisoner of war. He was killed in 1919 whilst test flying a Fokker D.VII at Shoreham, Sussex.

Major Albert Carter by Ivan Berryman. (GL)
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 The second of the Royal Navy's Vanguard Class SSBNs, HMS Victorious is shown in the Gareloch, with the naval base of Faslane in the background.

HMS Victorious Departing Faslane by Ivan Berryman. (P)
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 Viewed from beneath the blistered guns of the damaged X and Y turrets of her sister HMS Ajax, Achilles come sunder fire from the pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee during what was to become known as the Battle of the River Plate on the 13th December 1939. Shells from Achilles are closing on her opponent as the Graf Spee alters course at the start of the doomed battleships flight to Montevideo

The Pursuit of the Graf Spee by Ivan Berryman (P)
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In the spring of 1942, USS Washington was the first of Americas fast battleship fleet to participate in combat operations when she was briefly assigned to the Royal Navy. On 28th June 1942, together with HMS Duke of York, HMS Victorious and an accompanying cruiser and destroyer force, she formed part of the distant covering force to convoy PQ17, bound for Russia. In the Pacific later that same year, she became the only modern US battleship to engage an enemy capital ship, sinking the Japanese battlecruiser Kirishima.

Arctic guardian - USS Washington by Anthony Saunders
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 The cruiser HMS Frobisher dominates this scene off Houlgate at the Normandy landings of 1944.  The monitor HMS Roberts lies beyond Frobisher with a Large Infantry Landing Ship or LSI (L) unshipping its LCAs on the extreme right of the picture.  In the foreground, a motor launch attends a group of LCP (L)s as they head for the French beaches.  Two Spitfire Mk.IXs conduct sweeps overhead as Operation Neptune gathers momentum.

HMS Frobisher and HMS Roberts at Normandy by Ivan Berryman
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The assault ship HMS Fearless is shown dispatching her assault craft in San Carlos Water during the Falklands conflict of 1982. HMS Argonaut lies at anchor to her starboard with HMS Antrim in the extreme distance.

HMS Fearless by Ivan Berryman.
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 The E-class light cruiser HMS Emerald is shown off the Newfoundland coast in company with a Flower class corvette.  Between October 1939 and August 1940, HMS Emerald carried £58 million in gold from Britain to Canada.

HMS Emerald by Ivan Berryman.
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 The destroyer HMS Kelly passes close to the battleship HMS Royal Sovereign as she escorts a convoy in the Mediterranean near Malta.

HMS Kelly passes HMS Royal Sovereign by Ivan Berryman (Y)
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 None among Rackams crew were more resolute or ready to board or undertake anything that was hazardous. Quote taken from Captain C. Johnsons book. A General History of the Robberies and murders of the Most Notorious Pirates. (1724)

Anne Bonney, Mary Reid and Calico Jack Rackam by Chris Collingwood. (Y)
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 88mm AA guns of the 23rd Flak Regiment, used as anti-tank guns by orders of Rommel himself, are shown firing on British Matilda tanks of 4th/7th Royal Tank Regiment.

Action at Arras, France, 21st May 1940 by David Pentland. (GL)
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 Bastogne, Ardennes, Belgium, 24th December 1944. Surviving U.S. tank crew from Task Force Cherry and Paratroopers of 101st Airborne Division take a break while awaiting orders for their next battle.

The Battered Band by David Pentland. (Y)
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 Men of Colonel Frosts 2 Para  retake the bridge after a German attempt lead by Captain Viktor Graebner of the 9th SS panzer Division (armoured  reconnaissance Troops) had failed.

Arnhem Bridge by Simon Smith (P)
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 British Crusader MK1 tanks of the 4th County of London Yeomanry Regiment, 22nd Armoured Brigade, charge Axis positions during the opening days of the offensive Bir El Gubi.

Operation Crusader, 18th November 1941 by David Pentland. (P)
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 9th (Irish) Field Battery firing on the Run-in-shoot to Queen Beach. They were the first rounds fired at the Normandy Coast, D-Day 6th June, 1944. Queen Beach, one of the 4 sectors of Sword Beach, where most of the landings of D-Day were carried out. The Queen Beach sector which extended for 1.5km between Lion-sur-Mer and the western edge of Ouistretham. The attack was thus concentrated on a narrow one-brigade front. For once the DD tanks and other armour came in exactly on time and ahead of the infantry. The 8th brigade, with the 1st Battalion of the South Lancashire Regiment on the right and the 2nd East Yorkshire on the left.

Operation Overlord by David Rowlands. (Y)
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 M3 Lee tanks and troops from General Slims 14th Army clear Japanese resistance form the village of Ywathitgyi in their drive to Mandalay.

Road to Mandalay, Burma, February 1945 by David Pentland. (Y)
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 Kharkov, Russia, February - March 1943.  After abandoning Rostov and Kharkov in the face of the Soviet Winter Offensive, Field Marshal Erich von Manstein set about the recapture of both.  Among those taking part in the ensuing counterattack was the newly promoted tank gunner Erich Barkmann, of 2nd Company 2nd SS Panzer Grenadier Division, who had just been given command of his own Panzer III.

The Long Road to Kharkov by David Pentland. (P)
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 Preussisch Stargard, East Prussia, February 1945.  Following the departure  of the platoon's two other vehicles, after expending all their ammunition, the single Jagdpanther of Oberfeldwebel Hermann Bix remained to cover the withdrawal of all supporting infantry in the area.  Hidden behind a muck heap, with only twenty armour piercing and five high explosive shells remaining he made the attacking Soviet Shermans pay a heavy price, destroying sixteen of their number before he too fell back out of ammunition.

The Rearguard by David Pentland. (P)
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