Glorious 1st of June
1st June 1794

Glorious 1st of June, 1st June 1794

The Glorious First of June

Lord Howe, who had been first Lord of the Admiralty for a short time, but had resigned when the Annual Estimates ere cut down in 1790, another difficulty having arisen with Spain, was appointed to the command of the Channel Fleet, and hoisted the Union Jack on the Queen Charlotte. The dispute with Spain, however, was adjusted, but in 1793, when 68 years of age, on the outbreak of war with France, he was reappointed to the command of the channel Fleet.

Ship for ship the French fleet was more than a match for the English fleet both in tonnage and in weight of metal. The French people had the most of unbounded confidence in their Armada. “Never before,” wrote the Moniteur before the fleet set sail, “did there exist in Brest a fleet so formidable and well disposed as that now lying there.

Howe had 26 sail of the line and seven frigates; the French Admiral, Villaret-Joyeuse, who shared his authority with Saint Andre, a Deputy from the Convention, had the same number of ships of the line and five frigates. The French Admiral flew his flag on the Montagne, which also carried the Representative of the convention.

A General Chase

When the French fleet, which was to windward, have come within nine miles of the British, it hauled to the wind on the larboard tack and hove to. Some manoeuvring followed, but at nine o’clock (May 28th) it became evident that the enemy was declining the engagement, so Howe gave the signal for a general chase, the enemy to be engaged as the ships came up with him. The first shot in this long-drawn-out engagement was discharged at half-past-two, when the Russell, the foremost British ship, fired at the hindmost vessel of the French fleet. At six o’clock the Bellerophon, of 74 guns, reached the lee beam of the Revolutionnaire, carrying 120, pluckily attacked her, and stuck to her for over an hour, until she was disabled and had to sheer off. Other ships, singly or in couples, then tried their hands upon the great French ship, and in the end she was reduced to such a defenceless condition that to the last broadside of the Audacious she could only return three shots. Her loss in men was nearly 4--; and it was only with great difficulty that she reached Rochefort in tow of the Audacieux. Her assailants, however, did not come off scathe less, and the Audacious had difficulty in making her way to Plymouth.

The Disabled Ships

The next day (May 29th) Howe’s flagship, bearing the brunt of the fire of the French line, passed through it between the fifth and sixth vessels in the rear, but as she was followed only by the Bellerophon and the and the Leviathan, no advantage could be taken of this change of position. The rest of the English fleet had passed along the enemy’s line, and tackling astern of it were too far distant when they had regained the Charlotte’s wake to give her support. Three of the French ships, which had been disabled, were rescued by the skill of the French Admiral, who bore up with his whole fleet to their support, though in doing so he had to give up the weather-gage to his enemy. “The distant and dispersed state of the British fleet,” according to Howe, prevented any adequate steps being taken to circumvent the rescue of the three disabled ships. The Leviathon had her foremast crippled, and it was in danger of falling, and Howe stood to her help. In his “Journal” Lord Hugh Seymour, her captain, made a handsome acknowledgment of the timely succour.

Nothing decisive either on this or on the two succeeding days owing to fog; but on the morning of June 1st soon after seven o’clock, Howe signalled that he intended to attack the enemy’s centre, and that he should break through the enemy’s lines and engage to leeward; an hour later he ordered each of his ships to steer for the ship opposed to her in the enemy’s line.

OUR RECOMMENDATION FOR THIS BATTLE

HMS Defence at the Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Nicholas Pocock.

DHM143. HMS Defence at the Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Nicholas Pocock.

One of the most realistic pictures of a sea battle ever painted, the British ship, the Defence, totally dismasted but refusing to surrender, she is being attacked by a French two-decker on the left and L Achille on the right.

Open edition print.

Image size 30 inches x 18 inches (76cm x 46cm)

Price : £50.00

Glorious 1st of June Art Prints

One of the most realistic pictures of a sea battle ever painted, the British ship, the Defence, totally dismasted but refusing to surrender, she is being attacked by a French two-decker on the left and L Achille on the right. HMS Defence at the Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Nicholas Pocock.Click For DetailsDHM0143
 In January 1793 the 1st Battalion of the 29th Foot leaves Windsor for Hilsea to board Royal Navy fighting ships as there is a shortage of marines. Their new roll is to counter enemy musket fire from the upper decks, to lead boarding parties and to maintain discipline of the crew. They are specially equipped with a new working rig but still retain their full dress red coats and powdered hair (curled locks above the ear are removed) for combat. The regiment joins The British Channel Fleet under Admiral Earl Howe, and detachments are allocated to the following ships of the line; H.M.S. Glory, Thunderer, Alfred, Pegasus and Ramilles. 78 soldiers under the command of Cpt. Alexander Saunders are also placed aboard Captain Harveys 74 gun H.M.S. Brunswick.  Howes ships are sent to intercept a fleet, of similar size that has put out from Brest to escort a large convoy of food from America, destined for Revolutionary France. The two fleets make contact but fog prevents an engagement until 1 Oarn on the first day of June 1794. Now, in bright sunshine, the order is given to attack! Brunswick is directly astern of Howes flag ship as the French line is broken. She quickly engages Le Vengeur with which she becomes dangerously entangled. Broadsides are exchanged at point blank range! Sails are shot to ribbons, masts and rigging fall. Grenades, carronades and musketry find their targets and casualties mount. Nevertheless, the ships band, joined by a negro regimental drummer on the quarter deck, keep up moral by playing the new and popular air Hearts Of Oak. The two ships drift helplessly as another French man-of-war, Achille, comes in for the kill but the British gunners deliver such a devastating broadside into this new assailant that she is completely demasted and strikes her colours! In the firefight the figure head, an effigy of the Duke of Brunswick, has its carved wooden hat blown clean away. So, Captain Harvey calmly replaces the loss with his own cocked hat! The captain himself receives a blow to the hand and is subsequently mortally wounded with a section of chain-shot. Cpt. Saunders is killed by a snipers bullet and Lt. Harcourt Vernon (wearing short, non regulation boots to facilitate amputation) is soon wounded as well. The decks are cleared of downed masts and rigging, the dead also go over the side. cl At about one oclock the two interlocked ships are separated by a swell and Harveys brothers ship Ramilles cornes to the Brunsivicks assistance. The crippled Vengeur cannot compete with the skill of English gunnery and the ship is raked from end to end by galling fire. Cheers ring out as she surrenders and hoists the Union Jack. The rest of the French fleet breaks off the engagement. Six of their ships are out of action and Le Vengeur is so very badly holed that she eventually sinks (many of her crew refusing to abandon her. Singing the Marseillaise they re-hoist her battle flag as they slip to their watery grave)  This British fleet returns in triumph to Spithead. However, the scene on the Brunswicks splintered poop deck is one of utter devastation. The regiment has 13 officers and men killed, another 18 are wounded and nearly quarter of the ships company is lost.  This hard won victory is commemorated by the regiment with Naval Crown (awarded to the regiment in 1909, an honour shared only by the Queens Regiment) and by the adoption of the tune played throughout the height of battle, Hearts of Oak.  Hearts of Oak by Mark Churms.Click For DetailsDHM0369
DHM595.  Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Louthemburg. Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Louthembourg.Click For DetailsDHM0595

Glorious 1st of June

The Glorious First of June

Lord Howe, who had been first Lord of the Admiralty for a short time, but had resigned when the Annual Estimates ere cut down in 1790, another difficulty having arisen with Spain, was appointed to the command of the Channel Fleet, and hoisted the Union Jack on the Queen Charlotte. The dispute with Spain, however, was adjusted, but in 1793, when 68 years of age, on the outbreak of war with France, he was reappointed to the command of the channel Fleet.

Ship for ship the French fleet was more than a match for the English fleet both in tonnage and in weight of metal. The French people had the most of unbounded confidence in their Armada. “Never before,” wrote the Moniteur before the fleet set sail, “did there exist in Brest a fleet so formidable and well disposed as that now lying there.

Howe had 26 sail of the line and seven frigates; the French Admiral, Villaret-Joyeuse, who shared his authority with Saint Andre, a Deputy from the Convention, had the same number of ships of the line and five frigates. The French Admiral flew his flag on the Montagne, which also carried the Representative of the convention.

A General Chase

When the French fleet, which was to windward, have come within nine miles of the British, it hauled to the wind on the larboard tack and hove to. Some manoeuvring followed, but at nine o’clock (May 28th) it became evident that the enemy was declining the engagement, so Howe gave the signal for a general chase, the enemy to be engaged as the ships came up with him. The first shot in this long-drawn-out engagement was discharged at half-past-two, when the Russell, the foremost British ship, fired at the hindmost vessel of the French fleet. At six o’clock the Bellerophon, of 74 guns, reached the lee beam of the Revolutionnaire, carrying 120, pluckily attacked her, and stuck to her for over an hour, until she was disabled and had to sheer off. Other ships, singly or in couples, then tried their hands upon the great French ship, and in the end she was reduced to such a defenceless condition that to the last broadside of the Audacious she could only return three shots. Her loss in men was nearly 4--; and it was only with great difficulty that she reached Rochefort in tow of the Audacieux. Her assailants, however, did not come off scathe less, and the Audacious had difficulty in making her way to Plymouth.

The Disabled Ships

The next day (May 29th) Howe’s flagship, bearing the brunt of the fire of the French line, passed through it between the fifth and sixth vessels in the rear, but as she was followed only by the Bellerophon and the and the Leviathan, no advantage could be taken of this change of position. The rest of the English fleet had passed along the enemy’s line, and tackling astern of it were too far distant when they had regained the Charlotte’s wake to give her support. Three of the French ships, which had been disabled, were rescued by the skill of the French Admiral, who bore up with his whole fleet to their support, though in doing so he had to give up the weather-gage to his enemy. “The distant and dispersed state of the British fleet,” according to Howe, prevented any adequate steps being taken to circumvent the rescue of the three disabled ships. The Leviathon had her foremast crippled, and it was in danger of falling, and Howe stood to her help. In his “Journal” Lord Hugh Seymour, her captain, made a handsome acknowledgment of the timely succour.

Nothing decisive either on this or on the two succeeding days owing to fog; but on the morning of June 1st soon after seven o’clock, Howe signalled that he intended to attack the enemy’s centre, and that he should break through the enemy’s lines and engage to leeward; an hour later he ordered each of his ships to steer for the ship opposed to her in the enemy’s line.

Howe’s Compliment to Bowen

When breaking through the French line the Queen Charlotte passed so close under the Montagne’s stern that the French ensign brushed her lower rigging. Just as she was closing with the Montagne, Howe, whom was he conning her, called out to Bowen to starboard the helm. “But we shall be on board the Jacobin!” Was Bowmen’s reply for the Jacobin, the French ship next to the Montagne, was stretching ahead towards the position abreast of the flagship, which the Queen Charlotte was making for. “What is that to you, sir?” The Admiral rejoined. “D----n my eyes!” Said Bowen in an undertone; “I don’t care if you don’t! I’ll go near enough to singe some of our whiskers.” Howe overheard the remark, and, cool as he always was in the greatest emergency, said, turning to his captain, “That’s a fine fellow, Curtis!” Bowen star boarded the helm, and the Queen Charlotte passed the Jacobin on the weather quarter, but so closely that her jib boom grazed the mizzen shrouds of the French ship. As the latter bore up she received the Queen Charlottes starboard broadside in her port quarter, which she returned by shooting away the Charlottes foretopmast. This made it impossible for Howe to luff alongside the Montagne, as he had intended to do, but he maintained a cannonade upon her starboard quarter, which struck down nearly 300 of her men. This terrible fire the French Admirable endured for a time without firing a shot, owing, it has been suggested, to his starboard broadside guns not having been cleared for action, since he had not anticipated that the enemy would break his line and attack him to leeward. At 10 a.m. with her stern and quarter stove in and a number of her guns dismounted, the Montagne left the line of battle. The Jacobin and others also hauled off, and Howe gave the signal “General chase.” When the Montagne and the Jacobin had reached their own van the flagship wore, and, followed by 11 others, made for the Queen, which was lying disabled, no great way from the charlotte. Seeing her peril, Howe with several of his ships stood towards their disabled consort, whereat the Frenchmen went to help five crippled ships to westward, succeeded in saving them.

A Dramatic Struggle

There was a dramatic struggle between the Duke of Brunswick and the Vengeur du Peuple. The Achille had foiled the Brunswick’s attempt to break through the French line, so she steered for the Venguer, and colliding with the Brunswick anchors, caught in the Vengeur’s rigging, and the two ships jammed together, with their sides grating up and down as the waves rose and fell, fought, locked yard-arm to yard-arm. The English crews got the better of the struggle, and, beat down the fire of the Vengeur below but the French vessel’s chain-shot and musketry killed the Brunswick’s captain and nearly all those who were on her upper deck. The Frenchmen then intended to carry the Brunswick by boarding, assisted by the Achille, which was close to at hand. Her boarding parties crowded on the gangways and rigging, stood ready with cutlass and pistol for the moment when the ships would touch. Her main and mizzenmasts had already gone over the side, and she was moving under her foresails only when the Brunswick’s guns crews, running across to her side, poured in so destructive a fire that the men in the rigging and gangways were knocked down’ at the same time her foremast fell, and she later became a prize, for three British vessels were now approaching to help the Duke of Brunswick. Her guns crews and fired with extreme elevation and extreme depression, alternately, into the side of the Vengeur, knocking great holes into her upper decks, and riddling her on the water line.

After remaining locked together for a long time, the anchors of the Brunswick carrying the Vengeur’s rigging, the ships forged clear. The Brunswick’s mizzenmast went over the side, but she gave the Vengeur some parting shots, which, breaking her rudder, knocked more, holes into her stern. The crew had fought nobly, for onboard the Brunswick 160 out of 600 men were down, and 23 out of 74 guns had been dismounted.

The captain of H.M.S. Ramillies now brought up his ship to assist his brother, who commanded the Brunswick, and after punishing the Vengeur still further, captured the Achille, then floating a sheer hulk on the water.

The Vengeur, with all her masts overboard, pierced by army shots, was slowly sinking, in spite of all the remaining effective crew being kept at the pumps and bailing ship. She had hung out signals of distress for some time, but during the heat of action they had not been noticed, till at 6 p.m. two British ships sent off their boats, which moved about 200 men, but the remainder, including all the badly wounded, sank in the ship.

Only a few of the British ships obeyed Howe’s order and followed his lead through the enemy’s line; the rest hauled up to windward and opened fire, some at short, others at long range. By half past eleven, when the firing on both sides had slackened, the British had eleven, the French twelve dismasted vessel, which we captured by 2.30 p.m. and Admiral Villaret Joyeuse steered for the harbour of Brest.

The British casualties were 222 killed and 700 wounded, and the total number for beginning to end of the operations was 1,148. The French loss was vastly greater. On the six captured ships along the killed and wounded numbered 1,270. Upwards of 2,000 were taken prisoners; the French total loss was 7,000 men.

Lord Howe, who rendered invaluable services to the nation in suppressing the Mutiny at Spithead in 1797, died August 5th, 1799. He was buried in the family vault in Nottinghamshire. The monument in the south transept of St. Paul’s Cathedral commemorates “his great and meritorious services, and in particular the brilliant victory of the 1st of June.”

Source : British Battles on Land and Sea

 

AVIATION PRINTS

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 Swordfish of 825 Sqn led by Lt-Cdr Esmonde begin their heroic attack on the battlescruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau and the heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen as they make their way up the English Channel from Brest during Operation Cerberus on 12th February 1942.  Although all the aircraft were lost and no significant damage was done to the German fleet, all the pilots were decorated for their bravery and Lt-Cdr Esmonde received the first Fleet Air Arm VC to be awarded, albeit posthumously.  The painting depicts the first wave of Swordfish attacking the Scharnhorst with Gneisenau taking avoiding action in the distance.  A German torpedo boat has turned to confront the attacking aircraft.

Attack on the Scharnhorst by Ivan Berryman.
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 In the narrow valley dominated by the 3000 metre high Mt Glärnish the Patrouille Suisse Tigers line up over the runway of the satellite airfield of Mollis as solo Paul Thoma streaks underneath in the dramatic <i>Tunnel</i> manoeuvre.

The Mollis Tunnel by Robert Tomlin. (Y)
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The B-17 Flying Fortress 'Memphis Belle' returns from one of her 25 mission over France and Germany.  Memphis Belle, a  B-17F-10-BO, USAAF Serial No.41-24485, was supplied to the USAAF on July 15th 1942, and delivered to the 91st Bomb Group in September 1942  at Dow Field, Bangor, Maine.  Memphis Belle deployed to Scotland at Prestwick on September 30th 1942 and went to RAF Kimbolton on October 1st, and then to her permanent base at Bassingbourn on October 14th.1942.  Memphis Belle was the first United States Army Air Force heavy bomber to complete 25 combat missions with her crew intact.  The aircraft and crew then returned to the United States to promote and sell war bonds.  The Memphis Belle B-17 is undergoing extensive restoration at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio.

Coming Home by Tim Fisher (AP)
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 Squadron Leader J R Baldwin passes above a section of Mulberry Harbour near Arromanches, late in June 1944, his personalised Hawker Typhoon bearing the codes JBII.

JBII - Hawker Typhoon of Wing Commander J R Baldwin by Ivan Berryman. (AP)
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 The night of the 16th May 1943 saw 19 modified Lancasters of the specially formed 617 squadron set out to breach the Ennepe, Eder, Mohne and Sorpe dams in Westphalia, Germany. The mission was led by Wing Commander Guy Gibson.

The Dambusters by Graeme Lothian.
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Germanys primary fighter during World War II, the Daimler-Benz DB601A powered BF109E-4 was much loved by its pilots, combining good speed and manoeuverability with a powerful armament, namely two 7.9mm MG17 machine guns in the top decking, two wing mounted 20mm MGFF/M canon and a further 20mm MGFF/M canon mounted in the engine, firing centrally through the propeller spinner.  Nearest aircraft is that of the 109s greatest exponent, Major Adolf Galland, Gruppenkommander III/JG26 Schlageter, Luftflotte 2, depicted during a sortie from Caffiers, France in 1942.

Adolf Galland / Messerschmitt Bf109 E-4 by Ivan Berryman (P)
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Our Gal Sal, a veteran of over a hundred ops, returning to base in the summer of 1944.  The peace of the  English country side is broken by the thunder of the mighty four engined bombers and keen observers will spot the rabbit scampering along the country lane as the Forts of the Bloody 100th circle the Airbase. With one engine feathered and showing signs of the gauntlet of Flak and fighters she has had to come through, the crew know they are only moments away from the safety of home.

The Veteran by Simon Smith.
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 Herbert Ihlefelds personal He162 White 23 - the revolutionary Heinkel Peoples Fighter - on patrol with JG1.This aircraft was captured intact and is today preserved in the National Air & Space Museum in Washington DC. <br><br><b>Published 2000.</b>

Jet Interceptor by Nicolas Trudgian. (B)
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NAVAL PRINTS

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HMS Ark Royal after a recent refit, rejoins the fleet in 2001.

HMS Ark Royal by Ivan Berryman (AP)
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Originally constructed as a Home Fleet Repair Ship, HMS Cyclops was later converted into a submarine depot ship and enjoyed a long career, both in the Mediterranean and in home waters.  Here she prepares to receive HMS Sceptre.  Another S-class submarine is already tethered alongside.

HMS Cyclops Prepares to Receive HMS Sceptre by Ivan Berryman (AP)
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DHM1322.  HMS Glasgow by Ivan Berryman.

HMS Glasgow by Ivan Berryman.
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  Down by the bows, the battered Seydlitz returns to the Jade after being heavily involved in the gun line action at Jutland.

SMS Seydlitz 1916 by Randall Wilson (P)
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HMS Lion with her sister ship HMS Princess Royal are shown firing on the German High Seas Fleet which can be seen in the distance during the Battle of Jutland.

HMS Lion at the Battle of Jutland by Ivan Berryman. (P)
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On 17th June 1944, 780 miles west of Saipan in Mid Pacific, the Gato class submarine USS Cavalla dives after a lucky sighting of a Japanese Naval Task Force, which included the aircraft carriers Taiho, Shokaku and Zuikaku. The Cavalla then trailed the Japanese, attacking and sinking the Shokaku on the 19th.

A Chance Encounter by Robert Barbour.
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HMS Glowworm, burning severely after receiving hits from the mighty Admiral Hipper, is depicted turning to begin her heroic sacrifice off the Norwegian coast on 8th April 1940. Hugely out-gunned and already crippled, Glowworms captain, Lieutenant-Commander Roope rammed his destroyer into the side of the Admiral Hipper, inflicting a 40 metre rip in its armour belt before drifting away and exploding. 38 British sailors were rescued from the sea and Roope was awarded a posthumous VC for his bravery, the first earned by the Royal Navy in WWII.

HMS Glowworms Attack on the Admiral Hipper by Ivan Berryman (AP)
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B103.  HMS Royal Sovereign and HMS Warspite departing Malta by Ivan Berryman.

HMS Royal Sovereign and HMS Warspite departing Malta by Ivan Berryman
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WORLD WAR TWO MILITARY PRINTS

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 Kharkov, Russia, February - March 1943.  After abandoning Rostov and Kharkov in the face of the Soviet Winter Offensive, Field Marshal Erich von Manstein set about the recapture of both.  Among those taking part in the ensuing counterattack was the newly promoted tank gunner Erich Barkmann, of 2nd Company 2nd SS Panzer Grenadier Division, who had just been given command of his own Panzer III.

The Long Road to Kharkov by David Pentland. (P)
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 Commandos of 1st Special Service Brigade, led by Lord Lovat, are piped past the defenders of the Caen canal (Pegasus) bridge by piper Bill Millin. The bridge was originally taken in a coup de main attack by the gliders of 6th Airborne Divisions D Company, 2nd battalion Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry, led by Major John Howard earlier that morning. Shortly afterwards the glider troops were reinforced by 7 Parachute Battalion, and together they held the area against German attacks until the main British forces landing at Sword beach could fight through to join them.

Piper Bill, Pegasus Bridge, Normandy, 13.00hrs, 6th June 1944 by David Pentland. (Y)
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 Men of the US 381st Infantry Regiment, 96th Division supported by the tanks of 763rd and 713th Flamethrower Tank Battalions, during the assault on Yaeju Dake. This escarpment, known as Big Apple was the last in a series of tough Japanese defence lines on the south of the Island.

Taking of Big Apple, Okinawa, 10th - 14th June 1945 by David Pentland.
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CC017. Original art for the poster of the film The Big Red One starring Lee Marvin by Chris Collingwood.

Original art for the poster of the film The Big Red One starring Lee Marvin by Chris Collingwood.
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  Trapped within a rapidly decreasing perimeter, the exhausted BEF along with elements of the French 1st Army appeared to be at the mercy of the mighty Luftwaffe.  No one though had reckoned on the brilliant leadership of Admiral Ramsay nor the gallant and unstinting efforts of the military and civilians who managed to rescue over 330,000 troops in nine days.

Operation Dynamo, Dunkirk, France 24th May - 4th June 1940 by David Pentland. (GL)
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 British Crusader MK1 tanks of the 4th County of London Yeomanry Regiment, 22nd Armoured Brigade, charge Axis positions during the opening days of the offensive Bir El Gubi.

Operation Crusader, 18th November 1941 by David Pentland. (P)
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 Lieut-Colonel W, Scott, the Kings (Liverpool) Regiment leads his men from the first glider, during operation broadway.

Chindits landing at Broadway, Burma, 5th / 6th March 1944 by David Rowlands (Y)
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 M2A4 and M3 tanks of A Company, 1st US Marine Tank Battalion. move out from Henderson Field to support the perimeter from Japanese attacks.

Guadalcanal by David Pentland. (Y)
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