Glorious 1st of June
1st June 1794

Glorious 1st of June, 1st June 1794

The Glorious First of June

Lord Howe, who had been first Lord of the Admiralty for a short time, but had resigned when the Annual Estimates ere cut down in 1790, another difficulty having arisen with Spain, was appointed to the command of the Channel Fleet, and hoisted the Union Jack on the Queen Charlotte. The dispute with Spain, however, was adjusted, but in 1793, when 68 years of age, on the outbreak of war with France, he was reappointed to the command of the channel Fleet.

Ship for ship the French fleet was more than a match for the English fleet both in tonnage and in weight of metal. The French people had the most of unbounded confidence in their Armada. “Never before,” wrote the Moniteur before the fleet set sail, “did there exist in Brest a fleet so formidable and well disposed as that now lying there.

Howe had 26 sail of the line and seven frigates; the French Admiral, Villaret-Joyeuse, who shared his authority with Saint Andre, a Deputy from the Convention, had the same number of ships of the line and five frigates. The French Admiral flew his flag on the Montagne, which also carried the Representative of the convention.

A General Chase

When the French fleet, which was to windward, have come within nine miles of the British, it hauled to the wind on the larboard tack and hove to. Some manoeuvring followed, but at nine o’clock (May 28th) it became evident that the enemy was declining the engagement, so Howe gave the signal for a general chase, the enemy to be engaged as the ships came up with him. The first shot in this long-drawn-out engagement was discharged at half-past-two, when the Russell, the foremost British ship, fired at the hindmost vessel of the French fleet. At six o’clock the Bellerophon, of 74 guns, reached the lee beam of the Revolutionnaire, carrying 120, pluckily attacked her, and stuck to her for over an hour, until she was disabled and had to sheer off. Other ships, singly or in couples, then tried their hands upon the great French ship, and in the end she was reduced to such a defenceless condition that to the last broadside of the Audacious she could only return three shots. Her loss in men was nearly 4--; and it was only with great difficulty that she reached Rochefort in tow of the Audacieux. Her assailants, however, did not come off scathe less, and the Audacious had difficulty in making her way to Plymouth.

The Disabled Ships

The next day (May 29th) Howe’s flagship, bearing the brunt of the fire of the French line, passed through it between the fifth and sixth vessels in the rear, but as she was followed only by the Bellerophon and the and the Leviathan, no advantage could be taken of this change of position. The rest of the English fleet had passed along the enemy’s line, and tackling astern of it were too far distant when they had regained the Charlotte’s wake to give her support. Three of the French ships, which had been disabled, were rescued by the skill of the French Admiral, who bore up with his whole fleet to their support, though in doing so he had to give up the weather-gage to his enemy. “The distant and dispersed state of the British fleet,” according to Howe, prevented any adequate steps being taken to circumvent the rescue of the three disabled ships. The Leviathon had her foremast crippled, and it was in danger of falling, and Howe stood to her help. In his “Journal” Lord Hugh Seymour, her captain, made a handsome acknowledgment of the timely succour.

Nothing decisive either on this or on the two succeeding days owing to fog; but on the morning of June 1st soon after seven o’clock, Howe signalled that he intended to attack the enemy’s centre, and that he should break through the enemy’s lines and engage to leeward; an hour later he ordered each of his ships to steer for the ship opposed to her in the enemy’s line.

OUR RECOMMENDATION FOR THIS BATTLE

HMS Defence at the Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Nicholas Pocock.

DHM143. HMS Defence at the Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Nicholas Pocock.

One of the most realistic pictures of a sea battle ever painted, the British ship, the Defence, totally dismasted but refusing to surrender, she is being attacked by a French two-decker on the left and L Achille on the right.

Open edition print.

Image size 30 inches x 18 inches (76cm x 46cm)

Price : £50.00

Glorious 1st of June Art Prints

One of the most realistic pictures of a sea battle ever painted, the British ship, the Defence, totally dismasted but refusing to surrender, she is being attacked by a French two-decker on the left and L Achille on the right. HMS Defence at the Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Nicholas Pocock.Click For DetailsDHM0143
 In January 1793 the 1st Battalion of the 29th Foot leaves Windsor for Hilsea to board Royal Navy fighting ships as there is a shortage of marines. Their new roll is to counter enemy musket fire from the upper decks, to lead boarding parties and to maintain discipline of the crew. They are specially equipped with a new working rig but still retain their full dress red coats and powdered hair (curled locks above the ear are removed) for combat. The regiment joins The British Channel Fleet under Admiral Earl Howe, and detachments are allocated to the following ships of the line; H.M.S. Glory, Thunderer, Alfred, Pegasus and Ramilles. 78 soldiers under the command of Cpt. Alexander Saunders are also placed aboard Captain Harveys 74 gun H.M.S. Brunswick.  Howes ships are sent to intercept a fleet, of similar size that has put out from Brest to escort a large convoy of food from America, destined for Revolutionary France. The two fleets make contact but fog prevents an engagement until 1 Oarn on the first day of June 1794. Now, in bright sunshine, the order is given to attack! Brunswick is directly astern of Howes flag ship as the French line is broken. She quickly engages Le Vengeur with which she becomes dangerously entangled. Broadsides are exchanged at point blank range! Sails are shot to ribbons, masts and rigging fall. Grenades, carronades and musketry find their targets and casualties mount. Nevertheless, the ships band, joined by a negro regimental drummer on the quarter deck, keep up moral by playing the new and popular air Hearts Of Oak. The two ships drift helplessly as another French man-of-war, Achille, comes in for the kill but the British gunners deliver such a devastating broadside into this new assailant that she is completely demasted and strikes her colours! In the firefight the figure head, an effigy of the Duke of Brunswick, has its carved wooden hat blown clean away. So, Captain Harvey calmly replaces the loss with his own cocked hat! The captain himself receives a blow to the hand and is subsequently mortally wounded with a section of chain-shot. Cpt. Saunders is killed by a snipers bullet and Lt. Harcourt Vernon (wearing short, non regulation boots to facilitate amputation) is soon wounded as well. The decks are cleared of downed masts and rigging, the dead also go over the side. cl At about one oclock the two interlocked ships are separated by a swell and Harveys brothers ship Ramilles cornes to the Brunsivicks assistance. The crippled Vengeur cannot compete with the skill of English gunnery and the ship is raked from end to end by galling fire. Cheers ring out as she surrenders and hoists the Union Jack. The rest of the French fleet breaks off the engagement. Six of their ships are out of action and Le Vengeur is so very badly holed that she eventually sinks (many of her crew refusing to abandon her. Singing the Marseillaise they re-hoist her battle flag as they slip to their watery grave)  This British fleet returns in triumph to Spithead. However, the scene on the Brunswicks splintered poop deck is one of utter devastation. The regiment has 13 officers and men killed, another 18 are wounded and nearly quarter of the ships company is lost.  This hard won victory is commemorated by the regiment with Naval Crown (awarded to the regiment in 1909, an honour shared only by the Queens Regiment) and by the adoption of the tune played throughout the height of battle, Hearts of Oak.  Hearts of Oak by Mark Churms.Click For DetailsDHM0369
DHM595.  Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Louthemburg. Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Louthembourg.Click For DetailsDHM0595

Glorious 1st of June

The Glorious First of June

Lord Howe, who had been first Lord of the Admiralty for a short time, but had resigned when the Annual Estimates ere cut down in 1790, another difficulty having arisen with Spain, was appointed to the command of the Channel Fleet, and hoisted the Union Jack on the Queen Charlotte. The dispute with Spain, however, was adjusted, but in 1793, when 68 years of age, on the outbreak of war with France, he was reappointed to the command of the channel Fleet.

Ship for ship the French fleet was more than a match for the English fleet both in tonnage and in weight of metal. The French people had the most of unbounded confidence in their Armada. “Never before,” wrote the Moniteur before the fleet set sail, “did there exist in Brest a fleet so formidable and well disposed as that now lying there.

Howe had 26 sail of the line and seven frigates; the French Admiral, Villaret-Joyeuse, who shared his authority with Saint Andre, a Deputy from the Convention, had the same number of ships of the line and five frigates. The French Admiral flew his flag on the Montagne, which also carried the Representative of the convention.

A General Chase

When the French fleet, which was to windward, have come within nine miles of the British, it hauled to the wind on the larboard tack and hove to. Some manoeuvring followed, but at nine o’clock (May 28th) it became evident that the enemy was declining the engagement, so Howe gave the signal for a general chase, the enemy to be engaged as the ships came up with him. The first shot in this long-drawn-out engagement was discharged at half-past-two, when the Russell, the foremost British ship, fired at the hindmost vessel of the French fleet. At six o’clock the Bellerophon, of 74 guns, reached the lee beam of the Revolutionnaire, carrying 120, pluckily attacked her, and stuck to her for over an hour, until she was disabled and had to sheer off. Other ships, singly or in couples, then tried their hands upon the great French ship, and in the end she was reduced to such a defenceless condition that to the last broadside of the Audacious she could only return three shots. Her loss in men was nearly 4--; and it was only with great difficulty that she reached Rochefort in tow of the Audacieux. Her assailants, however, did not come off scathe less, and the Audacious had difficulty in making her way to Plymouth.

The Disabled Ships

The next day (May 29th) Howe’s flagship, bearing the brunt of the fire of the French line, passed through it between the fifth and sixth vessels in the rear, but as she was followed only by the Bellerophon and the and the Leviathan, no advantage could be taken of this change of position. The rest of the English fleet had passed along the enemy’s line, and tackling astern of it were too far distant when they had regained the Charlotte’s wake to give her support. Three of the French ships, which had been disabled, were rescued by the skill of the French Admiral, who bore up with his whole fleet to their support, though in doing so he had to give up the weather-gage to his enemy. “The distant and dispersed state of the British fleet,” according to Howe, prevented any adequate steps being taken to circumvent the rescue of the three disabled ships. The Leviathon had her foremast crippled, and it was in danger of falling, and Howe stood to her help. In his “Journal” Lord Hugh Seymour, her captain, made a handsome acknowledgment of the timely succour.

Nothing decisive either on this or on the two succeeding days owing to fog; but on the morning of June 1st soon after seven o’clock, Howe signalled that he intended to attack the enemy’s centre, and that he should break through the enemy’s lines and engage to leeward; an hour later he ordered each of his ships to steer for the ship opposed to her in the enemy’s line.

Howe’s Compliment to Bowen

When breaking through the French line the Queen Charlotte passed so close under the Montagne’s stern that the French ensign brushed her lower rigging. Just as she was closing with the Montagne, Howe, whom was he conning her, called out to Bowen to starboard the helm. “But we shall be on board the Jacobin!” Was Bowmen’s reply for the Jacobin, the French ship next to the Montagne, was stretching ahead towards the position abreast of the flagship, which the Queen Charlotte was making for. “What is that to you, sir?” The Admiral rejoined. “D----n my eyes!” Said Bowen in an undertone; “I don’t care if you don’t! I’ll go near enough to singe some of our whiskers.” Howe overheard the remark, and, cool as he always was in the greatest emergency, said, turning to his captain, “That’s a fine fellow, Curtis!” Bowen star boarded the helm, and the Queen Charlotte passed the Jacobin on the weather quarter, but so closely that her jib boom grazed the mizzen shrouds of the French ship. As the latter bore up she received the Queen Charlottes starboard broadside in her port quarter, which she returned by shooting away the Charlottes foretopmast. This made it impossible for Howe to luff alongside the Montagne, as he had intended to do, but he maintained a cannonade upon her starboard quarter, which struck down nearly 300 of her men. This terrible fire the French Admirable endured for a time without firing a shot, owing, it has been suggested, to his starboard broadside guns not having been cleared for action, since he had not anticipated that the enemy would break his line and attack him to leeward. At 10 a.m. with her stern and quarter stove in and a number of her guns dismounted, the Montagne left the line of battle. The Jacobin and others also hauled off, and Howe gave the signal “General chase.” When the Montagne and the Jacobin had reached their own van the flagship wore, and, followed by 11 others, made for the Queen, which was lying disabled, no great way from the charlotte. Seeing her peril, Howe with several of his ships stood towards their disabled consort, whereat the Frenchmen went to help five crippled ships to westward, succeeded in saving them.

A Dramatic Struggle

There was a dramatic struggle between the Duke of Brunswick and the Vengeur du Peuple. The Achille had foiled the Brunswick’s attempt to break through the French line, so she steered for the Venguer, and colliding with the Brunswick anchors, caught in the Vengeur’s rigging, and the two ships jammed together, with their sides grating up and down as the waves rose and fell, fought, locked yard-arm to yard-arm. The English crews got the better of the struggle, and, beat down the fire of the Vengeur below but the French vessel’s chain-shot and musketry killed the Brunswick’s captain and nearly all those who were on her upper deck. The Frenchmen then intended to carry the Brunswick by boarding, assisted by the Achille, which was close to at hand. Her boarding parties crowded on the gangways and rigging, stood ready with cutlass and pistol for the moment when the ships would touch. Her main and mizzenmasts had already gone over the side, and she was moving under her foresails only when the Brunswick’s guns crews, running across to her side, poured in so destructive a fire that the men in the rigging and gangways were knocked down’ at the same time her foremast fell, and she later became a prize, for three British vessels were now approaching to help the Duke of Brunswick. Her guns crews and fired with extreme elevation and extreme depression, alternately, into the side of the Vengeur, knocking great holes into her upper decks, and riddling her on the water line.

After remaining locked together for a long time, the anchors of the Brunswick carrying the Vengeur’s rigging, the ships forged clear. The Brunswick’s mizzenmast went over the side, but she gave the Vengeur some parting shots, which, breaking her rudder, knocked more, holes into her stern. The crew had fought nobly, for onboard the Brunswick 160 out of 600 men were down, and 23 out of 74 guns had been dismounted.

The captain of H.M.S. Ramillies now brought up his ship to assist his brother, who commanded the Brunswick, and after punishing the Vengeur still further, captured the Achille, then floating a sheer hulk on the water.

The Vengeur, with all her masts overboard, pierced by army shots, was slowly sinking, in spite of all the remaining effective crew being kept at the pumps and bailing ship. She had hung out signals of distress for some time, but during the heat of action they had not been noticed, till at 6 p.m. two British ships sent off their boats, which moved about 200 men, but the remainder, including all the badly wounded, sank in the ship.

Only a few of the British ships obeyed Howe’s order and followed his lead through the enemy’s line; the rest hauled up to windward and opened fire, some at short, others at long range. By half past eleven, when the firing on both sides had slackened, the British had eleven, the French twelve dismasted vessel, which we captured by 2.30 p.m. and Admiral Villaret Joyeuse steered for the harbour of Brest.

The British casualties were 222 killed and 700 wounded, and the total number for beginning to end of the operations was 1,148. The French loss was vastly greater. On the six captured ships along the killed and wounded numbered 1,270. Upwards of 2,000 were taken prisoners; the French total loss was 7,000 men.

Lord Howe, who rendered invaluable services to the nation in suppressing the Mutiny at Spithead in 1797, died August 5th, 1799. He was buried in the family vault in Nottinghamshire. The monument in the south transept of St. Paul’s Cathedral commemorates “his great and meritorious services, and in particular the brilliant victory of the 1st of June.”

Source : British Battles on Land and Sea

 

AVIATION PRINTS

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On 11th September 1944, Urban <i>Ben</i> Drew claimed his third aerial victory claiming another Me109 in his P-51 Mustang.

Urban 'Ben' Drew - Aerial Hat-Trick by Brian Bateman. (P)
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 The night of the 16th May 1943 saw 19 modified Lancasters of the specially formed 617 squadron set out to breach the Ennepe, Eder, Mohne and Sorpe dams in Westphalia, Germany. The mission was led by Wing Commander Guy Gibson.

The Dambusters by Graeme Lothian.
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Mosquitos of 105 Squadron, Marham.  No. 105 Squadron, stationed at Marham, Norfolk, became the first Royal Air Force unit to become operational flying the Mosquito B. Mk. IV bomber on 11th April 1942.  The painting shows 105 Squadron on the raid of 10th April 1945, to the Wahren railway marshalling yards at Leipzig, Germany.

Return From Leipzig by Anthony Saunders. (C)
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B20.  Red Arrows Break Left by Ivan Berryman.

Red Arrows Break Left by Ivan Berryman.
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 Lockheed Vega PV-1 VB32 Squadron in the Santaren Channel. From this point on the U-boat was hunted and harassed only to be sunk in the Bay of Biscay.

The Hunt for U-Boat 134 by David Pentland.
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 10th May 1972. Lt. Curt Dose together with his RIO, LCDR Jim McDevitt line up their F-4J Phantom prior to landing on the USS Constellation following their first successful target CAP of the day. During this mission they claimed a MiG-21F after a ultra-low level supersonic flight over the North Vietnamese airfield of Kep, northeast of Hanoi.
Silver Kite 211 by Philip West. (Y)
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 Equipped with the experimental <i>Monica IIIE</i> detection device, Hawker Tempest EJ535 was deployed to the Fighter Interception Unit at Newchurch for evaluation in July 1944.  Originally developed as the AN/APS 13, <i>Monica</i> had been intended as a rear-looking device to warn crews of attacks from behind.  Now modified to face forward, it became a valuable aid in the battle against Hitler's terror weapons, notably the V-1 Flying Bomb.  In the hands of the Fighter Interception Unit's then Commanding Officer Joseph Berry, this became a winning combination with no fewer than 52 <i>Doodlebugs</i> falling to Berry's guns – on one occasion, seven V1s being shot down by Berry in a single night.

Bug Killer by Ivan Berryman. (AP)
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 Lancasters of 61 Squadron head out for the enemy coast during the night of 3rd November 1943. Seen in the lead Lancaster is Flt Lt Bill Reid flying QR-O. After sustaining two heavy attacks by enemy night fighters, killing two crew members and injuring Reid in the head, shoulders and hands. He carried on to the target, dropping accurately his bomb load. Navigating back by Pole Star and Moon, he lost consciousness on occasions due to blood loss. He managed to find his way Shipdharn. Upon landing the undercarriage collapsed but luckily did not catch fire. For his exploits that night he was awarded the Victoria Cross.

Lancaster VC by Graeme Lothian. (Y)
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 The destroyer HMS Kelly passes close to the old carrier HMS Eagle as she escorts a convoy in the Mediterranean early in 1941.

HMS Kelly by Ivan Berryman.
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 Key ships of the British task force sail in close formation in the Mediterranean sea during the build up to the coalition invasion of Iraq in march 2003, nearest is the flagship HMS Ark Royal with the commando carrier HMS ocean to her port side. other ships include a Type 42 destroyer , the Fleet Auxiliary Fort Victoria and an LSL  

NTG03 - Task Force to Iraq by Ivan Berryman.
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HMS Ark Royal after a recent refit, rejoins the fleet in 2001.

HMS Ark Royal by Ivan Berryman.
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 Sunset over Aboukir Bay on 1st August 1798 as ships of the Royal Navy, led by Nelson, conduct their ruthless destruction of the anchored French fleet. Ships shown from left to right. HMS Orion, Spartiate, Aquilon, Peuple Souvrain, HMS Defence, HMS Minotaur and HMS Swiftsure.

Battle of the Nile by Ivan Berryman. (Y)
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Nimrod MR2P from 201 squadron based at RAF Kinloss, climbs away under full power during NATO exercises off the west coast of Scotland. The Nimrod has just completed simulated depth charge attacks on the fleet submarine HMS Spartan and is returning to Kinloss for breakfast. Spartan turns and heads for the Clyde Submarine Base at Faslane on the Gareloch.

Good Morning, Spartan by Robert Barbour.
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 HM submarine H.28 enters Scapa Flow anchorage, passing the forlorn Battle Cruiser SMS Derfflinger and a group of sunken destroyers H.28 was one of the H class submarines. Launched in March 1918, she was finally scrapped in 1944.

Scapa Flow Graveyard by Robert Barbour.
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With the British Mediterranean Fleet riding at anchor in Grand  Harbour Malta, HMS  Majestic is shown preparing to leave harbour as local fisherman look on. 

Majestic Malta by Randall Wilson.
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 Under tow, HMS Vanguard having left John Brown shipyard, passes Dalmuir ship docks, Clydebank, 1946. HMS Vanguard would be the last British battleship to be built.

HMS Vanguard, Away the Vanguard by Randall Wilson. (Y)
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 Braving intense enemy fire, Lt. Col. RB Mayne, Commanding Officer 1st SAS Regiment devastated a German ambush and subsequently rescued wounded troops of his own unit who had been pinned down while on a reconnaissance mission for the 4th Canadian Armoured Division.

Paddys Fourth DSO, The Olderburg Raid, 9th April 1945 by David Pentland. (GS)
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 The Pak 40 - a hard hitting 75mm German anti-tank gun-seen here mounted on an SPW for greater battlefield mobility was essentially a scaled up version of the PaK 38 debuted in Russia where it was needed to combat the newest Soviet tanks there.  It was designed to fire the same low-capacity APCBC, HE and HL projectiles which had been standardized for usage in the long barreled KwK 40 tank guns.

Pak40 Mounted on SPW Half-Track by Jason Askew. (P)
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 General Major Erwin Rommel leads the vanguard of his vaunted 7th Panzer (Ghost) Division past an abandoned French Char B tank on its epic drive from the Ardennes to the English Channel.

Blitzkrieg, Northern France, May 1940 by David Pentland.
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 Bastogne, Ardennes, Belgium, 20th December 1944.  Newly arrived 81mm Mortars of 2nd Battalion, 506th PIR, 101st Airborne Division, fire in support of U.S. Paratroopers defending against German probes to the north of Bastogne.

Fire for Effect by David Pentland.
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 Men of the US 381st Infantry Regiment, 96th Division supported by the tanks of 763rd and 713th Flamethrower Tank Battalions, during the assault on Yaeju Dake. This escarpment, known as Big Apple was the last in a series of tough Japanese defence lines on the south of the Island.

Taking of Big Apple, Okinawa, 10th - 14th June 1945 by David Pentland.
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 German forces encircled in the fortress town of Konigsberg by 3rd Ukranian front prepare to break through the besieging Soviet lines to re-establish a supply line to the Baltic. Here some Stug III assault guns move up to their assembly area next to the towns World War One memorial. From here the attack was launched on February 18th 1945 and successfully opened a supply corridor which remained in place until 8th April.

Counter Attack at Konigsberg by David Pentland. (B)
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 OT34 Flamethrower tank and men of Col. Krickmans 6th Guards Tank Brigade take part in the Soviet counter attacks of 13th-27th September in defence of the southern factory district of Stalingrad before the final offensive in October.

Motherland, The Battle of Stalingrad, September 1942 by David Pentland.
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 During the morning of June 7th the 82nd Airborne were attacked by a mixed German battle group. Supported by 4th Division armour the Paratroopers and Glider troops repelled the attack which lasted most of the day.

Fighting for a Foothold, 82nd Airborne at St Mere Eglise, 1944 by Chris Collingwood. (Y)
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