Glorious 1st of June
1st June 1794

Glorious 1st of June, 1st June 1794

The Glorious First of June

Lord Howe, who had been first Lord of the Admiralty for a short time, but had resigned when the Annual Estimates ere cut down in 1790, another difficulty having arisen with Spain, was appointed to the command of the Channel Fleet, and hoisted the Union Jack on the Queen Charlotte. The dispute with Spain, however, was adjusted, but in 1793, when 68 years of age, on the outbreak of war with France, he was reappointed to the command of the channel Fleet.

Ship for ship the French fleet was more than a match for the English fleet both in tonnage and in weight of metal. The French people had the most of unbounded confidence in their Armada. “Never before,” wrote the Moniteur before the fleet set sail, “did there exist in Brest a fleet so formidable and well disposed as that now lying there.

Howe had 26 sail of the line and seven frigates; the French Admiral, Villaret-Joyeuse, who shared his authority with Saint Andre, a Deputy from the Convention, had the same number of ships of the line and five frigates. The French Admiral flew his flag on the Montagne, which also carried the Representative of the convention.

A General Chase

When the French fleet, which was to windward, have come within nine miles of the British, it hauled to the wind on the larboard tack and hove to. Some manoeuvring followed, but at nine o’clock (May 28th) it became evident that the enemy was declining the engagement, so Howe gave the signal for a general chase, the enemy to be engaged as the ships came up with him. The first shot in this long-drawn-out engagement was discharged at half-past-two, when the Russell, the foremost British ship, fired at the hindmost vessel of the French fleet. At six o’clock the Bellerophon, of 74 guns, reached the lee beam of the Revolutionnaire, carrying 120, pluckily attacked her, and stuck to her for over an hour, until she was disabled and had to sheer off. Other ships, singly or in couples, then tried their hands upon the great French ship, and in the end she was reduced to such a defenceless condition that to the last broadside of the Audacious she could only return three shots. Her loss in men was nearly 4--; and it was only with great difficulty that she reached Rochefort in tow of the Audacieux. Her assailants, however, did not come off scathe less, and the Audacious had difficulty in making her way to Plymouth.

The Disabled Ships

The next day (May 29th) Howe’s flagship, bearing the brunt of the fire of the French line, passed through it between the fifth and sixth vessels in the rear, but as she was followed only by the Bellerophon and the and the Leviathan, no advantage could be taken of this change of position. The rest of the English fleet had passed along the enemy’s line, and tackling astern of it were too far distant when they had regained the Charlotte’s wake to give her support. Three of the French ships, which had been disabled, were rescued by the skill of the French Admiral, who bore up with his whole fleet to their support, though in doing so he had to give up the weather-gage to his enemy. “The distant and dispersed state of the British fleet,” according to Howe, prevented any adequate steps being taken to circumvent the rescue of the three disabled ships. The Leviathon had her foremast crippled, and it was in danger of falling, and Howe stood to her help. In his “Journal” Lord Hugh Seymour, her captain, made a handsome acknowledgment of the timely succour.

Nothing decisive either on this or on the two succeeding days owing to fog; but on the morning of June 1st soon after seven o’clock, Howe signalled that he intended to attack the enemy’s centre, and that he should break through the enemy’s lines and engage to leeward; an hour later he ordered each of his ships to steer for the ship opposed to her in the enemy’s line.

OUR RECOMMENDATION FOR THIS BATTLE

HMS Defence at the Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Nicholas Pocock.

DHM143. HMS Defence at the Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Nicholas Pocock.

One of the most realistic pictures of a sea battle ever painted, the British ship, the Defence, totally dismasted but refusing to surrender, she is being attacked by a French two-decker on the left and L Achille on the right.

Open edition print.

Image size 30 inches x 18 inches (76cm x 46cm)

Price : £50.00

Glorious 1st of June Art Prints

One of the most realistic pictures of a sea battle ever painted, the British ship, the Defence, totally dismasted but refusing to surrender, she is being attacked by a French two-decker on the left and L Achille on the right. HMS Defence at the Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Nicholas Pocock.Click For DetailsDHM0143
 In January 1793 the 1st Battalion of the 29th Foot leaves Windsor for Hilsea to board Royal Navy fighting ships as there is a shortage of marines. Their new roll is to counter enemy musket fire from the upper decks, to lead boarding parties and to maintain discipline of the crew. They are specially equipped with a new working rig but still retain their full dress red coats and powdered hair (curled locks above the ear are removed) for combat. The regiment joins The British Channel Fleet under Admiral Earl Howe, and detachments are allocated to the following ships of the line; H.M.S. Glory, Thunderer, Alfred, Pegasus and Ramilles. 78 soldiers under the command of Cpt. Alexander Saunders are also placed aboard Captain Harveys 74 gun H.M.S. Brunswick.  Howes ships are sent to intercept a fleet, of similar size that has put out from Brest to escort a large convoy of food from America, destined for Revolutionary France. The two fleets make contact but fog prevents an engagement until 1 Oarn on the first day of June 1794. Now, in bright sunshine, the order is given to attack! Brunswick is directly astern of Howes flag ship as the French line is broken. She quickly engages Le Vengeur with which she becomes dangerously entangled. Broadsides are exchanged at point blank range! Sails are shot to ribbons, masts and rigging fall. Grenades, carronades and musketry find their targets and casualties mount. Nevertheless, the ships band, joined by a negro regimental drummer on the quarter deck, keep up moral by playing the new and popular air Hearts Of Oak. The two ships drift helplessly as another French man-of-war, Achille, comes in for the kill but the British gunners deliver such a devastating broadside into this new assailant that she is completely demasted and strikes her colours! In the firefight the figure head, an effigy of the Duke of Brunswick, has its carved wooden hat blown clean away. So, Captain Harvey calmly replaces the loss with his own cocked hat! The captain himself receives a blow to the hand and is subsequently mortally wounded with a section of chain-shot. Cpt. Saunders is killed by a snipers bullet and Lt. Harcourt Vernon (wearing short, non regulation boots to facilitate amputation) is soon wounded as well. The decks are cleared of downed masts and rigging, the dead also go over the side. cl At about one oclock the two interlocked ships are separated by a swell and Harveys brothers ship Ramilles cornes to the Brunsivicks assistance. The crippled Vengeur cannot compete with the skill of English gunnery and the ship is raked from end to end by galling fire. Cheers ring out as she surrenders and hoists the Union Jack. The rest of the French fleet breaks off the engagement. Six of their ships are out of action and Le Vengeur is so very badly holed that she eventually sinks (many of her crew refusing to abandon her. Singing the Marseillaise they re-hoist her battle flag as they slip to their watery grave)  This British fleet returns in triumph to Spithead. However, the scene on the Brunswicks splintered poop deck is one of utter devastation. The regiment has 13 officers and men killed, another 18 are wounded and nearly quarter of the ships company is lost.  This hard won victory is commemorated by the regiment with Naval Crown (awarded to the regiment in 1909, an honour shared only by the Queens Regiment) and by the adoption of the tune played throughout the height of battle, Hearts of Oak.  Hearts of Oak by Mark Churms.Click For DetailsDHM0369
DHM595.  Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Louthemburg. Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Louthembourg.Click For DetailsDHM0595

Glorious 1st of June

The Glorious First of June

Lord Howe, who had been first Lord of the Admiralty for a short time, but had resigned when the Annual Estimates ere cut down in 1790, another difficulty having arisen with Spain, was appointed to the command of the Channel Fleet, and hoisted the Union Jack on the Queen Charlotte. The dispute with Spain, however, was adjusted, but in 1793, when 68 years of age, on the outbreak of war with France, he was reappointed to the command of the channel Fleet.

Ship for ship the French fleet was more than a match for the English fleet both in tonnage and in weight of metal. The French people had the most of unbounded confidence in their Armada. “Never before,” wrote the Moniteur before the fleet set sail, “did there exist in Brest a fleet so formidable and well disposed as that now lying there.

Howe had 26 sail of the line and seven frigates; the French Admiral, Villaret-Joyeuse, who shared his authority with Saint Andre, a Deputy from the Convention, had the same number of ships of the line and five frigates. The French Admiral flew his flag on the Montagne, which also carried the Representative of the convention.

A General Chase

When the French fleet, which was to windward, have come within nine miles of the British, it hauled to the wind on the larboard tack and hove to. Some manoeuvring followed, but at nine o’clock (May 28th) it became evident that the enemy was declining the engagement, so Howe gave the signal for a general chase, the enemy to be engaged as the ships came up with him. The first shot in this long-drawn-out engagement was discharged at half-past-two, when the Russell, the foremost British ship, fired at the hindmost vessel of the French fleet. At six o’clock the Bellerophon, of 74 guns, reached the lee beam of the Revolutionnaire, carrying 120, pluckily attacked her, and stuck to her for over an hour, until she was disabled and had to sheer off. Other ships, singly or in couples, then tried their hands upon the great French ship, and in the end she was reduced to such a defenceless condition that to the last broadside of the Audacious she could only return three shots. Her loss in men was nearly 4--; and it was only with great difficulty that she reached Rochefort in tow of the Audacieux. Her assailants, however, did not come off scathe less, and the Audacious had difficulty in making her way to Plymouth.

The Disabled Ships

The next day (May 29th) Howe’s flagship, bearing the brunt of the fire of the French line, passed through it between the fifth and sixth vessels in the rear, but as she was followed only by the Bellerophon and the and the Leviathan, no advantage could be taken of this change of position. The rest of the English fleet had passed along the enemy’s line, and tackling astern of it were too far distant when they had regained the Charlotte’s wake to give her support. Three of the French ships, which had been disabled, were rescued by the skill of the French Admiral, who bore up with his whole fleet to their support, though in doing so he had to give up the weather-gage to his enemy. “The distant and dispersed state of the British fleet,” according to Howe, prevented any adequate steps being taken to circumvent the rescue of the three disabled ships. The Leviathon had her foremast crippled, and it was in danger of falling, and Howe stood to her help. In his “Journal” Lord Hugh Seymour, her captain, made a handsome acknowledgment of the timely succour.

Nothing decisive either on this or on the two succeeding days owing to fog; but on the morning of June 1st soon after seven o’clock, Howe signalled that he intended to attack the enemy’s centre, and that he should break through the enemy’s lines and engage to leeward; an hour later he ordered each of his ships to steer for the ship opposed to her in the enemy’s line.

Howe’s Compliment to Bowen

When breaking through the French line the Queen Charlotte passed so close under the Montagne’s stern that the French ensign brushed her lower rigging. Just as she was closing with the Montagne, Howe, whom was he conning her, called out to Bowen to starboard the helm. “But we shall be on board the Jacobin!” Was Bowmen’s reply for the Jacobin, the French ship next to the Montagne, was stretching ahead towards the position abreast of the flagship, which the Queen Charlotte was making for. “What is that to you, sir?” The Admiral rejoined. “D----n my eyes!” Said Bowen in an undertone; “I don’t care if you don’t! I’ll go near enough to singe some of our whiskers.” Howe overheard the remark, and, cool as he always was in the greatest emergency, said, turning to his captain, “That’s a fine fellow, Curtis!” Bowen star boarded the helm, and the Queen Charlotte passed the Jacobin on the weather quarter, but so closely that her jib boom grazed the mizzen shrouds of the French ship. As the latter bore up she received the Queen Charlottes starboard broadside in her port quarter, which she returned by shooting away the Charlottes foretopmast. This made it impossible for Howe to luff alongside the Montagne, as he had intended to do, but he maintained a cannonade upon her starboard quarter, which struck down nearly 300 of her men. This terrible fire the French Admirable endured for a time without firing a shot, owing, it has been suggested, to his starboard broadside guns not having been cleared for action, since he had not anticipated that the enemy would break his line and attack him to leeward. At 10 a.m. with her stern and quarter stove in and a number of her guns dismounted, the Montagne left the line of battle. The Jacobin and others also hauled off, and Howe gave the signal “General chase.” When the Montagne and the Jacobin had reached their own van the flagship wore, and, followed by 11 others, made for the Queen, which was lying disabled, no great way from the charlotte. Seeing her peril, Howe with several of his ships stood towards their disabled consort, whereat the Frenchmen went to help five crippled ships to westward, succeeded in saving them.

A Dramatic Struggle

There was a dramatic struggle between the Duke of Brunswick and the Vengeur du Peuple. The Achille had foiled the Brunswick’s attempt to break through the French line, so she steered for the Venguer, and colliding with the Brunswick anchors, caught in the Vengeur’s rigging, and the two ships jammed together, with their sides grating up and down as the waves rose and fell, fought, locked yard-arm to yard-arm. The English crews got the better of the struggle, and, beat down the fire of the Vengeur below but the French vessel’s chain-shot and musketry killed the Brunswick’s captain and nearly all those who were on her upper deck. The Frenchmen then intended to carry the Brunswick by boarding, assisted by the Achille, which was close to at hand. Her boarding parties crowded on the gangways and rigging, stood ready with cutlass and pistol for the moment when the ships would touch. Her main and mizzenmasts had already gone over the side, and she was moving under her foresails only when the Brunswick’s guns crews, running across to her side, poured in so destructive a fire that the men in the rigging and gangways were knocked down’ at the same time her foremast fell, and she later became a prize, for three British vessels were now approaching to help the Duke of Brunswick. Her guns crews and fired with extreme elevation and extreme depression, alternately, into the side of the Vengeur, knocking great holes into her upper decks, and riddling her on the water line.

After remaining locked together for a long time, the anchors of the Brunswick carrying the Vengeur’s rigging, the ships forged clear. The Brunswick’s mizzenmast went over the side, but she gave the Vengeur some parting shots, which, breaking her rudder, knocked more, holes into her stern. The crew had fought nobly, for onboard the Brunswick 160 out of 600 men were down, and 23 out of 74 guns had been dismounted.

The captain of H.M.S. Ramillies now brought up his ship to assist his brother, who commanded the Brunswick, and after punishing the Vengeur still further, captured the Achille, then floating a sheer hulk on the water.

The Vengeur, with all her masts overboard, pierced by army shots, was slowly sinking, in spite of all the remaining effective crew being kept at the pumps and bailing ship. She had hung out signals of distress for some time, but during the heat of action they had not been noticed, till at 6 p.m. two British ships sent off their boats, which moved about 200 men, but the remainder, including all the badly wounded, sank in the ship.

Only a few of the British ships obeyed Howe’s order and followed his lead through the enemy’s line; the rest hauled up to windward and opened fire, some at short, others at long range. By half past eleven, when the firing on both sides had slackened, the British had eleven, the French twelve dismasted vessel, which we captured by 2.30 p.m. and Admiral Villaret Joyeuse steered for the harbour of Brest.

The British casualties were 222 killed and 700 wounded, and the total number for beginning to end of the operations was 1,148. The French loss was vastly greater. On the six captured ships along the killed and wounded numbered 1,270. Upwards of 2,000 were taken prisoners; the French total loss was 7,000 men.

Lord Howe, who rendered invaluable services to the nation in suppressing the Mutiny at Spithead in 1797, died August 5th, 1799. He was buried in the family vault in Nottinghamshire. The monument in the south transept of St. Paul’s Cathedral commemorates “his great and meritorious services, and in particular the brilliant victory of the 1st of June.”

Source : British Battles on Land and Sea

 

AVIATION PRINTS

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 10th May 1972. Lt. Curt Dose together with his RIO, LCDR Jim McDevitt line up their F-4J Phantom prior to landing on the USS Constellation following their first successful target CAP of the day. During this mission they claimed a MiG-21F after a ultra-low level supersonic flight over the North Vietnamese airfield of Kep, northeast of Hanoi.
Silver Kite 211 by Philip West. (Y)
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 A swordfish from HMS Warspite on patrol off the coast of Egypt, near the port of Alexandria.

Out of Alex by David Pentland.
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The B-17 Flying Fortress 'Memphis Belle' returns from one of her 25 mission over France and Germany.  Memphis Belle, a  B-17F-10-BO, USAAF Serial No.41-24485, was supplied to the USAAF on July 15th 1942, and delivered to the 91st Bomb Group in September 1942  at Dow Field, Bangor, Maine.  Memphis Belle deployed to Scotland at Prestwick on September 30th 1942 and went to RAF Kimbolton on October 1st, and then to her permanent base at Bassingbourn on October 14th.1942.  Memphis Belle was the first United States Army Air Force heavy bomber to complete 25 combat missions with her crew intact.  The aircraft and crew then returned to the United States to promote and sell war bonds.  The Memphis Belle B-17 is undergoing extensive restoration at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio.

Coming Home by Tim Fisher.
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 Wing Commander Ken Wallis flies his WA-115 autogyro over the Shinmoi Crater in the Krishima area of the southern Japanese island of Kyushu in preparation for filming the action sequences for the James Bond film <i>You Only Live Twice</i>.  Those of us who enjoy a certain series of spy films will be much aware of Little Nellie, designed by Wing Commander Ken Wallis MBE She is pictured flying above the tops of extinct volcanoes.  Little Nellie was one of 3 military Type WA-116 built during 1962 and one of these remains today taking part in military exercises and with camouflage bodywork.  These operate in remote military and civilian roles and a specially-silenced WA-117 was used during the Loch Ness investigation and for special photography in Saudi Arabia.  These effective and nimble autogyros have been flown from Naval patrol craft which are too small for helicopters.  The Wallis autogyros have held all 20 of the UK official world records for autogyro speed, time to climb, altitude, range and duration and even now, further world record-breaking flights are being planned.

Little Nellie by Robert Tomlin. (Y)
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A surprise dive bombing attack at 12.45pm as Spitfires of 65 squadron were taking off. 148 bombs were dropped on the airfield and hangars. The entire squadron got airborne with one exception, its engine was stopped by the blast from one of the bombs.

Battle of Britain, Manston, 12th August 1940 by Gerald Coulson. (Y)
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 A Gloster Gladiator MkII of 247 Sqn is depicted patrolling off the Cornish coast in August 1940 during which time this squadron became the only one to operate the Gladiator in the defence of the South of England during the Battle of Britain.

Lone Gladiator by Ivan Berryman. (P)
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 At 3.30am on the 23rd June 1945, a Dakota of 357 (special duties) Squadron took off from Mingaladon airfield nr.  Rangoon , to travel the 600 miles, 300 of them behind enemy lines, to rescue a downed American Liberator crew deep in the jungles of   Siam  .  The Dakota was flown by pilot Fl Lt. Larry Lewis, who already held the DFM awarded to him for 33 ops as a rear gunner on   Wellingtons  in 1941. Two crews had already failed when Lewis was asked to attempt this hazardous mission. Flying between 5,000 - 6,000ft he flew over The Hump, a ridge of mountains running down the spine of   Burma  . Local villagers had cleared a rough airstrip 800yds long with Lewis finding it by the time dawn broke. With monsoon clouds gathering, the Liberator crew aboard and the Dakota sinking in the wet ground, he managed, just, to get airborne. Flying at zero feet and looking out for Japanese Zero fighters Lewis took a different course back. Although being fired on from the ground they managed to make it all the way to the airfield at Dum Dum nr.   Calcutta ,  India  . Lewis was awarded an immediate DFC. By the end of the war he had completed 63 ops, held the rank of Squadron Leader with his service from 1938-1945, and was awarded the Air Efficiency Medal.

Larry Lewis DFC by Graeme Lothian. (P)
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 A trio of Bell Huey UH-1s deliver ARVN Rangers to a drop zone in the central Highlands of Vietnam during 1970. The ubiquitous Huey saw action in an enormous variety of roles, Vietnam being the first true helicopter war, and it will perhaps be remembered by many a grateful GI for its (and its crews) part in many hundreds of daring rescues amid the unyielding and unfamiliar terrain of south east Asia.

DZ 9.00am by Ivan Berryman. (Y)
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NAVAL PRINTS

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 Completed in 1916, the Resolution was one of the finest capital ships in the Royal Navy, serving in many theatres with her sister ships, Royal Sovereign, Royal Oak, Ramillies and Revenge, she is shown here in 1936.

HMS Resolution by Ivan Berryman. (Y)
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 Of the three E-Class cruisers proposed at the end of World War 1, only two were ever completed, Euphrates being cancelled when the war with Germany ended in 1918.  The two sisters, Emerald and Enterprise, enjoyed long and varied careers, the former remaining largely unchanged from her original appearance, the latter being much modified.  The two ships are shown together at anchor off Trincomalie between the wars.

HMS Emerald and HMS Enterprise by Ivan Berryman. (P)
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 USS Coral Sea (CV-43 being replenished by fast combat support ship USS Seattle (DE-3) as two of the carriers compliment of F.4s of VF-111 The Sundowners makes a low pass.

USS Coral Sea by Ivan Berryman (P)
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The USS Colorado holds the all time record of 37 consecutive days of firing at an enemy and the record of 24 direct enemy air attacks in 62 days both while at Okinawa.

USS Colorado Okinawa by Anthony Saunders. 
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The Battle of Trafalgar was fought on a calm, almost windless day, on 21st October 1805.  Nelsons revolutionary battle plan was to cut apart the larger Franco-Spanish fleet of Vice-Admiral Villeneuve by sailing in two single column divisions directly at right angles into the combined fleet and thus rendering almost half of the leading ships useless until the could turn and join the fight, which in such calm conditions could take hours.  The battle raged for five hours in which time not one British ship was lost, however, Nelson would tragically lose his life at the very moment of his triumph, a triumph which rendered the British Navy unchallenged in supremacy for over a century.  Here HMS Mars passes between the French ship Belleisle on her starboard and the French ship Fougeux on her port, firing a murderous hail of gunfire at both ships.  Also shown in the painting on the left hand side is the Spanish ship Monarco and the French ship Pluton.

The Battle of Trafalgar - Mars Breaks the Line by Anthony Saunders. (AP)
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 The Japanese ship Takao at Flank speed, riding shotgun for the carrier

Flank Speed by Randall Wilson.
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 HMS Broadsword and the aircraft carrier Hermes battle their way through the storm on their way to the Battle for the Falklands.

Storm Force to the Falklands by Anthony Saunders (P)
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B69AP. HMS Valiant and HMS Queen Elizabeth at Alexandria by Ivan Berryman.

HMS Valiant and HMS Queen Elizabeth at Alexandria by Ivan Berryman (AP)
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WORLD WAR TWO MILITARY PRINTS

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 Sturmgeschutz IIIg and Paratroops of the 4th Fallschirmjager Division, driving to the front line, pass one of the two giant 28cm K5 (Eisenbaum) railway guns responsible for the shelling the Allied beacheads at Anzio and Nettuno.

Anzio Annie, Italy, 29th January 1944 by David Pentland. (P)
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A Tiger I and PAK 40 anti tank gun of the Müncheberg Division, field a final defence of the capital in front of the Brandenburg Gate under the shattered remains of the famous Linden trees. The under-strength division had just been formed the previous month from a mixture of ad hoc units and various marks of tank. Despite this it put up a spirited fight until its final destruction in early May.

Tiger at the Gate, Berlin, 30th April 1945 by David Pentland. (GL)
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 OT34 Flamethrower tank and men of Col. Krickmans 6th Guards Tank Brigade take part in the Soviet counter attacks of 13th-27th September in defence of the southern factory district of Stalingrad before the final offensive in October.

Motherland, The Battle of Stalingrad, September 1942 by David Pentland. (GL)
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 Hill 112, Normandy, 28th June 1944.  Infantry of the 11th Armoured Division digging in during the battle for the strategically important Hill 112.  The division comprised of the 8th Motor Battalion Rifle Brigade, 4th King's Shropshire Light Infantry, 3rd Monmouthshires,1st Herefords, 3rd Royal Tank Regiment, 2nd Fife & Forfarshire, Yeomanry and 23rd Hussars.

Digging In by David Pentland. (P)
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 Although in the process of regrouping after their escape from the Cherkassy Pocket, Panthers and Panzer Grenadiers of the crack 5th SS Panzer Division Wiking are part of the relief force hastily assembled and thrown in to free the strategically important city of Kowel in the Pripet Marshes. By April 10th the Soviet encirclement of the city was broken and Wiking were pulled out of the line to continue refitting.

Fight for Kowel, Poland, March/April 1944 by David Pentland.
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 Polish 7TP (Twin Turret) light tank of Captain F. Michalowskis training company breaks out from the street barricade to counter attack German reconnaissance elements.

Warsaw, September 1939 by David Pentland.
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DHM341B. The Battle of Beda Fomm  by David Rowlands.

The Battle of Beda Fomm by David Rowlands (B)
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<b>Ex-display prints in near perfect condition. </b>

Lance-Corporal Harry Nichols, 3rd battalion Grenadier Guards, winning the Victoria Cross at the River Escaut, 21st May 1940 by David Rowlands. (Y)
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