Glorious 1st of June
1st June 1794

Glorious 1st of June, 1st June 1794

The Glorious First of June

Lord Howe, who had been first Lord of the Admiralty for a short time, but had resigned when the Annual Estimates ere cut down in 1790, another difficulty having arisen with Spain, was appointed to the command of the Channel Fleet, and hoisted the Union Jack on the Queen Charlotte. The dispute with Spain, however, was adjusted, but in 1793, when 68 years of age, on the outbreak of war with France, he was reappointed to the command of the channel Fleet.

Ship for ship the French fleet was more than a match for the English fleet both in tonnage and in weight of metal. The French people had the most of unbounded confidence in their Armada. “Never before,” wrote the Moniteur before the fleet set sail, “did there exist in Brest a fleet so formidable and well disposed as that now lying there.

Howe had 26 sail of the line and seven frigates; the French Admiral, Villaret-Joyeuse, who shared his authority with Saint Andre, a Deputy from the Convention, had the same number of ships of the line and five frigates. The French Admiral flew his flag on the Montagne, which also carried the Representative of the convention.

A General Chase

When the French fleet, which was to windward, have come within nine miles of the British, it hauled to the wind on the larboard tack and hove to. Some manoeuvring followed, but at nine o’clock (May 28th) it became evident that the enemy was declining the engagement, so Howe gave the signal for a general chase, the enemy to be engaged as the ships came up with him. The first shot in this long-drawn-out engagement was discharged at half-past-two, when the Russell, the foremost British ship, fired at the hindmost vessel of the French fleet. At six o’clock the Bellerophon, of 74 guns, reached the lee beam of the Revolutionnaire, carrying 120, pluckily attacked her, and stuck to her for over an hour, until she was disabled and had to sheer off. Other ships, singly or in couples, then tried their hands upon the great French ship, and in the end she was reduced to such a defenceless condition that to the last broadside of the Audacious she could only return three shots. Her loss in men was nearly 4--; and it was only with great difficulty that she reached Rochefort in tow of the Audacieux. Her assailants, however, did not come off scathe less, and the Audacious had difficulty in making her way to Plymouth.

The Disabled Ships

The next day (May 29th) Howe’s flagship, bearing the brunt of the fire of the French line, passed through it between the fifth and sixth vessels in the rear, but as she was followed only by the Bellerophon and the and the Leviathan, no advantage could be taken of this change of position. The rest of the English fleet had passed along the enemy’s line, and tackling astern of it were too far distant when they had regained the Charlotte’s wake to give her support. Three of the French ships, which had been disabled, were rescued by the skill of the French Admiral, who bore up with his whole fleet to their support, though in doing so he had to give up the weather-gage to his enemy. “The distant and dispersed state of the British fleet,” according to Howe, prevented any adequate steps being taken to circumvent the rescue of the three disabled ships. The Leviathon had her foremast crippled, and it was in danger of falling, and Howe stood to her help. In his “Journal” Lord Hugh Seymour, her captain, made a handsome acknowledgment of the timely succour.

Nothing decisive either on this or on the two succeeding days owing to fog; but on the morning of June 1st soon after seven o’clock, Howe signalled that he intended to attack the enemy’s centre, and that he should break through the enemy’s lines and engage to leeward; an hour later he ordered each of his ships to steer for the ship opposed to her in the enemy’s line.

OUR RECOMMENDATION FOR THIS BATTLE

HMS Defence at the Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Nicholas Pocock.

DHM143. HMS Defence at the Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Nicholas Pocock.

One of the most realistic pictures of a sea battle ever painted, the British ship, the Defence, totally dismasted but refusing to surrender, she is being attacked by a French two-decker on the left and L Achille on the right.

Open edition print.

Image size 30 inches x 18 inches (76cm x 46cm)

Price : £50.00

Glorious 1st of June Art Prints

One of the most realistic pictures of a sea battle ever painted, the British ship, the Defence, totally dismasted but refusing to surrender, she is being attacked by a French two-decker on the left and L Achille on the right. HMS Defence at the Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Nicholas Pocock.Click For DetailsDHM0143
 In January 1793 the 1st Battalion of the 29th Foot leaves Windsor for Hilsea to board Royal Navy fighting ships as there is a shortage of marines. Their new roll is to counter enemy musket fire from the upper decks, to lead boarding parties and to maintain discipline of the crew. They are specially equipped with a new working rig but still retain their full dress red coats and powdered hair (curled locks above the ear are removed) for combat. The regiment joins The British Channel Fleet under Admiral Earl Howe, and detachments are allocated to the following ships of the line; H.M.S. Glory, Thunderer, Alfred, Pegasus and Ramilles. 78 soldiers under the command of Cpt. Alexander Saunders are also placed aboard Captain Harveys 74 gun H.M.S. Brunswick.  Howes ships are sent to intercept a fleet, of similar size that has put out from Brest to escort a large convoy of food from America, destined for Revolutionary France. The two fleets make contact but fog prevents an engagement until 1 Oarn on the first day of June 1794. Now, in bright sunshine, the order is given to attack! Brunswick is directly astern of Howes flag ship as the French line is broken. She quickly engages Le Vengeur with which she becomes dangerously entangled. Broadsides are exchanged at point blank range! Sails are shot to ribbons, masts and rigging fall. Grenades, carronades and musketry find their targets and casualties mount. Nevertheless, the ships band, joined by a negro regimental drummer on the quarter deck, keep up moral by playing the new and popular air Hearts Of Oak. The two ships drift helplessly as another French man-of-war, Achille, comes in for the kill but the British gunners deliver such a devastating broadside into this new assailant that she is completely demasted and strikes her colours! In the firefight the figure head, an effigy of the Duke of Brunswick, has its carved wooden hat blown clean away. So, Captain Harvey calmly replaces the loss with his own cocked hat! The captain himself receives a blow to the hand and is subsequently mortally wounded with a section of chain-shot. Cpt. Saunders is killed by a snipers bullet and Lt. Harcourt Vernon (wearing short, non regulation boots to facilitate amputation) is soon wounded as well. The decks are cleared of downed masts and rigging, the dead also go over the side. cl At about one oclock the two interlocked ships are separated by a swell and Harveys brothers ship Ramilles cornes to the Brunsivicks assistance. The crippled Vengeur cannot compete with the skill of English gunnery and the ship is raked from end to end by galling fire. Cheers ring out as she surrenders and hoists the Union Jack. The rest of the French fleet breaks off the engagement. Six of their ships are out of action and Le Vengeur is so very badly holed that she eventually sinks (many of her crew refusing to abandon her. Singing the Marseillaise they re-hoist her battle flag as they slip to their watery grave)  This British fleet returns in triumph to Spithead. However, the scene on the Brunswicks splintered poop deck is one of utter devastation. The regiment has 13 officers and men killed, another 18 are wounded and nearly quarter of the ships company is lost.  This hard won victory is commemorated by the regiment with Naval Crown (awarded to the regiment in 1909, an honour shared only by the Queens Regiment) and by the adoption of the tune played throughout the height of battle, Hearts of Oak.  Hearts of Oak by Mark Churms.Click For DetailsDHM0369
DHM595.  Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Louthemburg. Battle of the Glorious 1st June 1794 by Louthembourg.Click For DetailsDHM0595

Glorious 1st of June

The Glorious First of June

Lord Howe, who had been first Lord of the Admiralty for a short time, but had resigned when the Annual Estimates ere cut down in 1790, another difficulty having arisen with Spain, was appointed to the command of the Channel Fleet, and hoisted the Union Jack on the Queen Charlotte. The dispute with Spain, however, was adjusted, but in 1793, when 68 years of age, on the outbreak of war with France, he was reappointed to the command of the channel Fleet.

Ship for ship the French fleet was more than a match for the English fleet both in tonnage and in weight of metal. The French people had the most of unbounded confidence in their Armada. “Never before,” wrote the Moniteur before the fleet set sail, “did there exist in Brest a fleet so formidable and well disposed as that now lying there.

Howe had 26 sail of the line and seven frigates; the French Admiral, Villaret-Joyeuse, who shared his authority with Saint Andre, a Deputy from the Convention, had the same number of ships of the line and five frigates. The French Admiral flew his flag on the Montagne, which also carried the Representative of the convention.

A General Chase

When the French fleet, which was to windward, have come within nine miles of the British, it hauled to the wind on the larboard tack and hove to. Some manoeuvring followed, but at nine o’clock (May 28th) it became evident that the enemy was declining the engagement, so Howe gave the signal for a general chase, the enemy to be engaged as the ships came up with him. The first shot in this long-drawn-out engagement was discharged at half-past-two, when the Russell, the foremost British ship, fired at the hindmost vessel of the French fleet. At six o’clock the Bellerophon, of 74 guns, reached the lee beam of the Revolutionnaire, carrying 120, pluckily attacked her, and stuck to her for over an hour, until she was disabled and had to sheer off. Other ships, singly or in couples, then tried their hands upon the great French ship, and in the end she was reduced to such a defenceless condition that to the last broadside of the Audacious she could only return three shots. Her loss in men was nearly 4--; and it was only with great difficulty that she reached Rochefort in tow of the Audacieux. Her assailants, however, did not come off scathe less, and the Audacious had difficulty in making her way to Plymouth.

The Disabled Ships

The next day (May 29th) Howe’s flagship, bearing the brunt of the fire of the French line, passed through it between the fifth and sixth vessels in the rear, but as she was followed only by the Bellerophon and the and the Leviathan, no advantage could be taken of this change of position. The rest of the English fleet had passed along the enemy’s line, and tackling astern of it were too far distant when they had regained the Charlotte’s wake to give her support. Three of the French ships, which had been disabled, were rescued by the skill of the French Admiral, who bore up with his whole fleet to their support, though in doing so he had to give up the weather-gage to his enemy. “The distant and dispersed state of the British fleet,” according to Howe, prevented any adequate steps being taken to circumvent the rescue of the three disabled ships. The Leviathon had her foremast crippled, and it was in danger of falling, and Howe stood to her help. In his “Journal” Lord Hugh Seymour, her captain, made a handsome acknowledgment of the timely succour.

Nothing decisive either on this or on the two succeeding days owing to fog; but on the morning of June 1st soon after seven o’clock, Howe signalled that he intended to attack the enemy’s centre, and that he should break through the enemy’s lines and engage to leeward; an hour later he ordered each of his ships to steer for the ship opposed to her in the enemy’s line.

Howe’s Compliment to Bowen

When breaking through the French line the Queen Charlotte passed so close under the Montagne’s stern that the French ensign brushed her lower rigging. Just as she was closing with the Montagne, Howe, whom was he conning her, called out to Bowen to starboard the helm. “But we shall be on board the Jacobin!” Was Bowmen’s reply for the Jacobin, the French ship next to the Montagne, was stretching ahead towards the position abreast of the flagship, which the Queen Charlotte was making for. “What is that to you, sir?” The Admiral rejoined. “D----n my eyes!” Said Bowen in an undertone; “I don’t care if you don’t! I’ll go near enough to singe some of our whiskers.” Howe overheard the remark, and, cool as he always was in the greatest emergency, said, turning to his captain, “That’s a fine fellow, Curtis!” Bowen star boarded the helm, and the Queen Charlotte passed the Jacobin on the weather quarter, but so closely that her jib boom grazed the mizzen shrouds of the French ship. As the latter bore up she received the Queen Charlottes starboard broadside in her port quarter, which she returned by shooting away the Charlottes foretopmast. This made it impossible for Howe to luff alongside the Montagne, as he had intended to do, but he maintained a cannonade upon her starboard quarter, which struck down nearly 300 of her men. This terrible fire the French Admirable endured for a time without firing a shot, owing, it has been suggested, to his starboard broadside guns not having been cleared for action, since he had not anticipated that the enemy would break his line and attack him to leeward. At 10 a.m. with her stern and quarter stove in and a number of her guns dismounted, the Montagne left the line of battle. The Jacobin and others also hauled off, and Howe gave the signal “General chase.” When the Montagne and the Jacobin had reached their own van the flagship wore, and, followed by 11 others, made for the Queen, which was lying disabled, no great way from the charlotte. Seeing her peril, Howe with several of his ships stood towards their disabled consort, whereat the Frenchmen went to help five crippled ships to westward, succeeded in saving them.

A Dramatic Struggle

There was a dramatic struggle between the Duke of Brunswick and the Vengeur du Peuple. The Achille had foiled the Brunswick’s attempt to break through the French line, so she steered for the Venguer, and colliding with the Brunswick anchors, caught in the Vengeur’s rigging, and the two ships jammed together, with their sides grating up and down as the waves rose and fell, fought, locked yard-arm to yard-arm. The English crews got the better of the struggle, and, beat down the fire of the Vengeur below but the French vessel’s chain-shot and musketry killed the Brunswick’s captain and nearly all those who were on her upper deck. The Frenchmen then intended to carry the Brunswick by boarding, assisted by the Achille, which was close to at hand. Her boarding parties crowded on the gangways and rigging, stood ready with cutlass and pistol for the moment when the ships would touch. Her main and mizzenmasts had already gone over the side, and she was moving under her foresails only when the Brunswick’s guns crews, running across to her side, poured in so destructive a fire that the men in the rigging and gangways were knocked down’ at the same time her foremast fell, and she later became a prize, for three British vessels were now approaching to help the Duke of Brunswick. Her guns crews and fired with extreme elevation and extreme depression, alternately, into the side of the Vengeur, knocking great holes into her upper decks, and riddling her on the water line.

After remaining locked together for a long time, the anchors of the Brunswick carrying the Vengeur’s rigging, the ships forged clear. The Brunswick’s mizzenmast went over the side, but she gave the Vengeur some parting shots, which, breaking her rudder, knocked more, holes into her stern. The crew had fought nobly, for onboard the Brunswick 160 out of 600 men were down, and 23 out of 74 guns had been dismounted.

The captain of H.M.S. Ramillies now brought up his ship to assist his brother, who commanded the Brunswick, and after punishing the Vengeur still further, captured the Achille, then floating a sheer hulk on the water.

The Vengeur, with all her masts overboard, pierced by army shots, was slowly sinking, in spite of all the remaining effective crew being kept at the pumps and bailing ship. She had hung out signals of distress for some time, but during the heat of action they had not been noticed, till at 6 p.m. two British ships sent off their boats, which moved about 200 men, but the remainder, including all the badly wounded, sank in the ship.

Only a few of the British ships obeyed Howe’s order and followed his lead through the enemy’s line; the rest hauled up to windward and opened fire, some at short, others at long range. By half past eleven, when the firing on both sides had slackened, the British had eleven, the French twelve dismasted vessel, which we captured by 2.30 p.m. and Admiral Villaret Joyeuse steered for the harbour of Brest.

The British casualties were 222 killed and 700 wounded, and the total number for beginning to end of the operations was 1,148. The French loss was vastly greater. On the six captured ships along the killed and wounded numbered 1,270. Upwards of 2,000 were taken prisoners; the French total loss was 7,000 men.

Lord Howe, who rendered invaluable services to the nation in suppressing the Mutiny at Spithead in 1797, died August 5th, 1799. He was buried in the family vault in Nottinghamshire. The monument in the south transept of St. Paul’s Cathedral commemorates “his great and meritorious services, and in particular the brilliant victory of the 1st of June.”

Source : British Battles on Land and Sea

 

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 Under the watchful eye of his more experienced tutor a trainee pilot gets his first taste of the Spitfire Mk.IIa, airborne from Tangmere early in 1941.  the nearest aircraft is P7856 (YT-C) which enjoyed a long career, surviving until 1945.

The Fledgling by Ivan Berryman. (B)
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 Wing Commander J R Baldwin is depicted flying Typhoon MN934 whilst commanding 146 Wing, 84 Group operating from Needs Oar Point in 1944, en route to a bombing raid on 20th June with other Typhoons of 257 Sqn in which both ends of a railway tunnel full of German supplies were successfully sealed.

Typhoons Over Normandy by Ivan Berryman. (AP)
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 Two Hawker Furies of No.1 Sqm, based at Tangmere in 1937.

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 Maurice <i>Peter</i> Brown damages a Dornier Do.17 in his 41 Squadron Spitfire on 30th September 1940.

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 The afternoon of 25th July 1940 was a desperate one for the already exhausted fighter pilots of the RAF defending the South coast of England.  As convoy CW8 made its way through the English Channel, sixty JU.87 Stukas and forty JU.88 bombers launched a brutal attack on the ships below, backed up by fighter cover of over 50 Messerscmitt Bf.109s.  Eight Spitfires of 64 Sqn (Kenley) were scrambled, together with twelve Spitfires of 54 Sqn (Hornchurch) and Hurricanes of 111 Sqn from Croydon.  The British pilots found themselves massively outnumbered, but nevertheless put up a spirited fight against the teeming enemy.  This painting shows Spitfires of 54 Sqn entering the fray, the pilots scattering as they choose their targets and go after the JU.87s. To the right of this, Bf.109Es of JG.26 are roaring in to join battle, whilst Adolf Gallands aircraft engages a Hurricane of 111 Sqn.

A Day for Heroes by Ivan Berryman.
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 One of 6,176 Halifaxes built during World War II, NA337(2P-X) was shot down over Norway on 23rd April 1945.  In 1995 it was recovered from the lake that had been its watery home for fifty years and has now been restored by the Halifax Aircraft Association in Ontario, Canada.

Halifax Mk.III NA337 by Ivan Berryman. (E)
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 French Armee de L air Curtiss Hawk 75As flown by Czech ace Frantisele Pevina and his squadron Commander Captaine Jean Accaut, dive on unsuspecting Junker Ju87Bs (Stukas) during the Battle of France 1940.

Czech - Mate by David Pentland.
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 HMS Thunderbolt by Ivan Berryman. The submarine HMS Thunderbolt moves away from the depot ship Montcalm.  Another submarine, HMS Swordfish is alongside for resupply.

HMS Thunderbolt by Ivan Berryman. (P)
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B0344P. Bismarck Leaving Port by Jason Askew.
Bismarck Leaving Port by Jason Askew. (P)
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 HMS Broadsword and the aircraft carrier Hermes battle their way through the storm on their way to the Battle for the Falklands.

Storm Force to the Falklands by Anthony Saunders (Y)
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 With her pennant number GO4 painted out to accommodate a western approaches camouflage the destroyer HMS Onslaught punches her way through a heavy swell during escort duties in the north Atlantic

HMS Onslaught by Ivan Berryman.
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Midday, 21st October 1805, and Admiral Collingwoods flagship, the 100-gun HMS Royal Sovereign, breaks the allied line and delivers a shattering broadside on the Spanish flagship Santa Anna. Making great speed, Collingwoods ship had breached the Franco-Spanish line some distance ahead of the rest of his van and the Royal Sovereign suffered heavily as she quickly drew the attentions of three French and three Spanish ships. To her starboard, the French Indomitable can be seen firing into the British flagship while, astern of the Santa Anna, Belleisle and Fougueux are engaging ahead of Mars, Monarca and Pluton.

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 OT34 Flamethrower tank and men of Col. Krickmans 6th Guards Tank Brigade take part in the Soviet counter attacks of 13th-27th September in defence of the southern factory district of Stalingrad before the final offensive in October.

Motherland, The Battle of Stalingrad, September 1942 by David Pentland. (GL)
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 It is August 1944, barely two months since the Allies landed their first troops on the beaches of Normandy. After the failed Operation Lüttich (codename given to a German counterattack during the Battle of Normandy, which took place around the American positions near Mortain from 7 August to 13 August, 1944 ) The German Panzer Divisions were in full retreat, The British and American Generals believed it to be critical to halt them before they cauld regroup. Caught in the Gap at Falaise, the battle was to be decisive. Flying throughout a continuous onslaught, rocket-firing Typhoons kept up their attacks on the trapped armoured divisions from dawn to dusk. The effect was devastating: at the end of the ten day battle the 100,000 strong German force was decimated. The battle of the Falaise Pocket marked the closing phase of the Battle of Normandy with a decisive German defeat. It is believed that between 80,000 to 100,000 German troops were caught in the encirclement of which 10,000 to 15,000 were killed, 45,000 to 50,000 taken prisoner, and around 20,000 escaped . Shown here are German Tiger I tanks under continues attack by Royal Aoir Force Typhoons.

Taming the Tiger by Geoff Lea. (Y)
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 1st Battalion in action at Escaut Canal, Belgium, May 1940. The last Highland Regiment to wear a kilt in battle, attacking the Germans at the River Escaut.  From the Diary of Captain R. Leah, 1st Battalion, Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders : Tuesday 21st May : Bn left Ere about 2 a.m. to march back. Fortunately Coy Cmdr. were required for some sort of recce and we went in C.O.s car.  Arrived Taintignies 3 a.m. and self went out again with Wilkie in C.O.s car to look for for C Coy which had gone astray, and to see Q.M. about Bn rations in Wez-Velvain.  Could not find either.  Met the Battalion arriving from Ere when I left the village at 3 a.m.  Got back myself at 4 a.m. found empty house which I entered by window and slept well for 5 hours. Officers mess going in house beside M.T. park, and had good breakfast.  Fairly quiet morning and orders to move this afternoon to Bn assembly position S of Wez-Velvain.  Thence we were directed to Merlin and prepared for counter-attack to drive enemy off Western side of Escaut.

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 Sturmtigers of Sturmmorser Company 1002, commanded by Lieutenant Zippel, take on ammunition in preparation for the battle to come. These fearsome monsters 38cm rocket projectors could penetrate up to 2.5m of reinforced concrete. Luckily for the Allies only 18 were completed by the wars end.

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 Panzer v Ausf. D Panthers of SS Panther Division Das Reich make their debut during the initial stages of the German summer offensive for Kursk. This unit with others of the SS Panzer Korps made the deepest advances into the well-prepared Soviet lines. Complete success however, was to elude them when outrunning their supporting divisions at Prokhorovka they were forced to halt for six days.

Operation Zitadelle by David Pentland. (GS)
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